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NAD + -aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase candidates for 4-aminobutyrate (GABA) and β-alanine production during terminal oxidation of polyamines in apple fruit. E-mail address: email@example.com Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada Search for more papers by this author 1 Present address: NutriAg Ltd., 62 Arrow Rd, North York, Ontario M9M 2L8, Canada. Corresponding author. Abuse: Different Essay. Fax: +1 519 767 0755. First published: 18 August 2015 Full publication history DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 0 articles Check for updates. The last step of what polyamine catabolism involves the oxidation of 3-aminopropanal or 4-aminobutanal via aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase. In this study, two apple ( Malus x domestica ) AMADH genes were selected ( MdAMADH1 and MdAMADH2 ) as candidates for encoding 4-aminobutanal dehydrogenase activity.
Maximal activity and catalytic efficiency were obtained with NAD + and 3-aminopropanal, followed by 4-aminobutanal, at pH 9.8. NAD + reduction was accompanied by the production of Abuse: GABA and β-alanine, respectively, when 4-aminobutanal and 3-aminopropanal were utilized as substrates. Md AMADH2 was peroxisomal and Md AMADH1 cytosolic. These findings shed light on relations, the potential role of apple AMADHs in 4-aminobutyrate and β-alanine production. 4-Aminobutyrate (GABA) is Essay a ubiquitous, non-proteinaceous four-carbon amino acid that functions in metabolism and Essay on The Battle, cell signaling. GABA markedly accumulates in Abuse: Different Types, plants subjected to schubert, various biotic and Abuse: Different Essay, abiotic stresses including anoxia, chilling, drought, salinity and mechanical damage and is biosynthesized via two distinct pathways. GABA can be derived from glutamate via pH- and define customer, calmodulin-dependent glutamate decarboxylase activity in the first step of the GABA-shunt pathway[4,5]. Alternatively, oxidation of putrescine and spermidine can contribute to GABA production. Different Essay. In dicotyledonous plants, the copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAO; EC 184.108.40.206) are responsible for the conversion of putrescine to 4-aminobutanal (ABAL), spermidine to 1,3-diaminopropane and ABAL, and 1,3-diaminopropane to 3-aminopropanal (APAL)[7,8]. ABAL is in rapid non-enzymatic equilibrium with Δ −1 -pyrroline, and dell marketing, the oxidation of these two metabolites is often considered to Types, be catalyzed by the same enzyme, generally referred to as NAD + -dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH, EC 220.127.116.11), leading to the biosynthesis of GABA.
The activity of plant AMADHs has generally been determined as substrate-dependent NADH production and there is gaius octavian only preliminary evidence, using excised tissue or crude protein extract, for the production of Essay GABA from ABAL[9,10]. AMADHs are classified into are photoreceptors several different aldehyde dehydrogenase families (ALDH9, ALDH10, ALDH25, ALDH26 and ALDH27)[11,12]. ALDH9 enzymes are found in animals, fungi and bacteria, whereas ALDH10 enzymes are found in plants and Essay, bacteria, and Doomsday: Essay, ALDH25, ALDH26 and ALDH27 enzymes are found in bacteria. All plant AMADHs classified as ALDH10 display 7085% sequence identity to each other and 3539% sequence identity with bacterial, fungal or mammal orthologs from the other families. Abuse: Different Types. Genome analysis of several higher plant species has revealed two homologous AMADH genes per species, with the exception of cucumber, grape and maize. Historically, the AMADHs have been frequently designated as 4-aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase, 4-guanidinobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, betaine aldehyde (BAL) dehydrogenase or trimethylaminobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase, depending on substrate preference. Dell Marketing. Missihoun et al. reported the Abuse: Different Types existence of two putative AMADH genes in Arabidopsis , AtALDH10A8 and AtALDH10A9 , although it was possible to generate and purify recombinant At ALDH10A9 only in sufficient quantities for demonstration of NAD + reduction in Doomsday: The Rebuttal Essay, the presence of BAL, ABAL or APAL. Furthermore, these authors suggested that At ALDH10A8 and At ALDH10A9 are targeted to leucoplast and peroxisome, respectively. Study of the Types Essay biochemical properties of plant AMADHs has become attractive because of the dell marketing potential involvement of these enzymes in important physiological processes.
For example, Basmati or Jasmine rice, which lacks a functional ABAL dehydrogenase protein, acetylate ABAL (or its cyclic form Δ 1 -pyrroline), resulting in the accumulation of 2-acetyl-Δ 1 -pyrroline, a potent component of rice fragrance. Different Types. Plant AMADHs also catalyze the biosynthesis of osmoprotectants such as glycine betaine via the oxidation of BAL in erlkonig, the chloroplast stroma[14,18]. Other research has described the accumulation of GABA in fruits, particularly apple, stored under controlled atmosphere conditions, which include low temperature, low O 2 and Different Types, elevated CO 2 (03 C, 12.5 kPa O 2 , 220 kPa CO 2 )[6,19,20]. Previous research has demonstrated that the peroxisomal MdAO1 gene is highly expressed in apple fruit and the encoded protein prefers diamines such 1,3-diaminopropane, putrescine and cadaverine as substrates. Schubert. In the present study, two AMADH genes were identified and cloned from the ALDH10 gene family (designated as MdAMADH1 and MdAMADH2 ). These two genes were heterologously expressed and the resultant recombinant proteins were purified and biochemically characterized. Different Essay. Both proteins catalyzed the NAD + -dependent oxidation of APAL and ABAL to β-alanine and GABA, respectively, but BAL was a very poor substrate.
Transient expression of define relations green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions in Arabidopsis protoplasts revealed that Md AMADH2 is peroxisomal, whereas Md AMADH1 is cytosolic. Details of the Abuse: Different Essay cloning strategy and customer relations, primer list are provided in theSupplementary Materials and Methods. 2.2 MdAMADH expression in various plant organs. Total RNA was extracted from the frozen powder of mature fruit, fully expanded leaves, and Abuse: Different, opened flowers as described previously. One microgram of Dnase I (Ambion) treated total RNA was used for first-strand cDNA synthesis with Oligo( dT ) 20 and are photoreceptors, Superscript III (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) at Different Types Essay, 50 C for 30 min followed by 55 C, according to the manufacturer's protocol. Gaius Octavian. Quantitative real time PCR was conducted as described previously. Relative expression and Abuse: Different, data analysis were determined using the 2 −ΔCt method and the apple Elongation factor 1-α ( MdEF-1α , Apple Genome Database MDP0000294265), as a superior housekeeping gene that is what are photoreceptors constitutively expressed[22,23]. The efficiency of the primer pairs was determined and only pairs with 90105% efficiency were selected for Abuse: Types further experiments. Two technical replicates were averaged for each biological replicate, and the mean of three biological replicates was determined for define customer each organ. Primer sequences utilized in gene expression of MdAMADH1 , MdAMADH2 and MdEF-1α are listed inSupplementary Table S1.
2.3 Expression and purification of recombinant proteins. Escherichia coli strain BL21 cells (EMD Millipore) were transformed with standard transformation methods. Recombinant protein expression was induced by adding 0.4 mM isopropyl β- d -1-thiogalactopyranoside to the Lysogeny broth medium supplemented with 50 μg mL −1 ampicillin after attaining an OD 600 of Essay 0.5. The cells were harvested 4 h after induction and then stored at −80 C. Bacterial lysis and purification of recombinant protein were performed as described elsewhere. On The. Fractions containing high protein levels were pooled and precipitated on ice by Different Essay, slowly adding ammonium sulfate, with gentle stirring, to 80% saturation.
Total proteins were visualized by SDSPAGE gel electrophoresis, followed by Essay Battle, staining with Coomassie Blue R-250 using standard protocols. Immunoblot analysis was based on a semi-dry method using a mouse monoclonal IgG against the His probe (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, 1:1000) and Abuse: Different Types, an anti-mouse IgGAlkaline Phosphatase (Sigma, 1:10,000) as primary and secondary antibodies, respectively. The Alkaline Phosphatase Conjugate Substrate Kit (Bio-Rad) was used to visualize fusion proteins. Define. Enzymatic activity was assayed as the substrate-dependent production of NADH or GABA and β-alanine. Details are provided in theSupplemental Materials and Methods. Different Types. 2.5 Transient transformation of define customer Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts.
Protoplasts were prepared from Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture ecotype Col-0 as described previously. N- and C-terminal GFP-fusion plasmids containing apple AMADHs were co-transformed with either mCherry peroxisome (pRTL2/Cherry-PTS1), or cytosolic red fluorescent protein (RFP) (pRTL2-MCS-RFP-stop) marker. Protoplasts were transformed using polyethylene glycol 4000 (Sigma) as described previously[29,30]. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed with an upright Leica DM 6000B microscope connected to a Leica TCS SP5 system. The excitation/emission scan settings were 488 nm/505 nm for Abuse: Types Essay the mGFP channel and 543 nm/610 nm for the RFP/mcherry channel. Modulation of laser light intensity and dell marketing, time-lapse scanning was performed using the Essay Leica software (LAS AF). What. 3.1 Sequence comparison, conserved motifs and Types Essay, phylogenetic relationship of MdAMADHs and some characterized AMADHs.
In silico analysis of the apple genome database revealed two putative members of the schubert erlkonig ALDH10 gene family. Full length genes were cloned using apple fruit cDNA, followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Types Essay. These genes were designated by the common names MdAMADH1 (GenBank Acc. No. KP218040) and what are photoreceptors, MdAMADH2 (GenBank Acc. No. KP218041) for our purposes, but were recently classified by Abuse: Types, the ALDH nomenclature committee as ALDH10A9 and dell marketing, ALDH10A8, respectively. MdAMADH1 and MdAMADH2 encode proteins of 55.0 and 54.6 kDa, respectively, and Abuse: Different Essay, are 94.8% identical to each other. Doomsday: The Rebuttal. Md AMADH1 shares 82.6% identity with A. thaliana At ALDH10A8 and 79.1% identity with At ALDH10A9, whereas Md AMADH2 shares 82.8% identity with At ALDH10A8 and 80.5% identity with At ALDH10A9.
Comparison of the putative AMADHs from apple with characterized AMADHs from other plant species reveals that apple and Arabidopsis AMADH isoforms are very similar to each other, suggesting that the two members of the Different Essay ALDH10 family in various species are the erlkonig result of independent gene duplication. Sequence comparisons indicate that apple AMADHs possess three highly conserved catalytic residues (N162, E260 and C294, Md AMADH numbering), which form the active site in Abuse: Different Essay, Ps AMADHs, and two conserved aspartate residues located at define relations, the entrance of the substrate channel (D110, D113), as well as Y163 and W288, which are considered essential for high-affinity binding of ω-aminoaldehydes such as APAL (Supplementary Fig. S1). Together, these data suggest that Md AMADHs are typical AMADHs in the ALDH10 family. 3.2 Expression analysis of MdAMADHs.
The levels of MdAMADH1 or MdAMADH2 expression were similar across fruit, leaves and flowers (Fig. 1 ). Abuse: Different. However, the expression of MdAMADH1 was two to three times that for schubert MdAMADH2 in all organs studied. Organ-specific expression of Different two MdAMADH genes. Transcript abundance in corresponding organs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using gene-specific primers and normalized to a housekeeping gene, EF-1α . Data represent the mean ± S.E. of three biological replicates. 3.3 Biochemical properties and substrate specificity of apple AMADHs. The cDNAs for MdAMADH1 , MdAMADH2 were individually expressed in E. coli and the recombinant His-tagged proteins purified to homogeneity, as indicated by Coomassie blue staining and immunoblot analysis of the soluble and affinity-purified fractions (Supplementary Fig. S2).
Enzyme activity was determined as the production of NADH during the oxidation of dell marketing APAL, ABAL or BAL; activity with BAL was detected only after increasing the protein concentration in the enzymatic reaction to Abuse: Different Essay, ten times the dell marketing level used for the APAL-dependent reaction (i.e., 100 nM). Essay. Initial measurements of maximal BAL-dependent activity were two to three orders of magnitude less than those for APAL and therefore BAL was omitted from the what are photoreceptors kinetic studies. Types. Stability tests revealed that recombinant apple AMADH proteins retained their enzymatic activity for several months after ammonium sulfate precipitation and storage at −80 C. The activities of Md AMADH1and Md AMADH2 displayed a sharp pH optimum at pH 9.8, a similar pattern over the pH range 711, and dell marketing, 20% of their maximal activity at pH 8 (Fig. 2 ). The maximal APAL-dependent activities of Md AMADH1 and Md MADH2 with saturating NADP + were only Abuse:, 1020% of those with saturating NAD + (data not shown). Activity of Md AMADHs as a function of pH. Dell Marketing. Assays were run at room temperature with HEPESGlycine buffer, 1 mM ABAL and Different Types Essay, 1 mM NAD + . Activity is expressed as a percent of the activity at the pH optimum (100%: 1.2 and 1.5 μmol −1 min −1 mg −1 for Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2, respectively).
Data represent the Essay Battle of Midway mean of four technical replicates from a typical enzyme preparation. NAD + -dependent activities at pH 9.8 demonstrated that Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 display partial substrate inhibition for both APAL and Abuse: Types, ABAL (Table 1 ;Supplementary Fig. S3). Gaius Octavian. The enzymes have approximately four to Abuse: Different Types, 18 times higher affinity and 65120 times higher catalytic efficiency for customer relations APAL than ABAL. APAL displays ten to 50 times stronger inhibition than ABAL across the two enzymes.
These findings are in general agreement with previous reports for Zm AMADH1a, Zm AMADH1b, Zm AMADH2, Ps AMADH1 and Abuse: Different Types Essay, Ps AMADH2[13,31]. When APAL was provided at a subsaturating level to limit substrate inhibition and gaius octavian, allow for sufficient catalytic rates, there was a three-fold range in affinity for NAD + across the enzymes (Table 1). Abuse: Different Types Essay. The kinetic parameters for each Md AMADH were determined using a typical enzyme preparation and a reaction solution containing 50 mM glycineNaOH buffer at schubert erlkonig, pH 9.8, 1 mM NAD + , 10% glycerol, 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and various concentrations of ABAL or APAL. The data were fit to the appropriate MichaelisMenten equation using non-linear regression. Abuse: Different Types. The kinetic curves are shown inSupplementary Fig. S3.
V max (μmol min −1 mg −1 protein), K m (μM), catalytic efficiency ( k cat / K m ) and substrate inhibition constant ( K is , μM) are shown for each substrate or coenzyme, as appropriate. Customer Relations. NAD + dependence was estimated in Abuse: Different, the presence of Doomsday: Essay 40 μM APAL to minimize substrate inhibition; therefore, these parameters are apparent values. To confirm the Essay biochemical function of the Md AMADHs, ABAL or APAL was supplied to the recombinant proteins in schubert, vitro at concentrations approximately two times their corresponding K m values in order to minimize substrate inhibition. The production of GABA or β-alanine was readily detectable within 30 s after initiating the reactions, and the accumulation of Abuse: Types these products over are photoreceptors, time depended on enzyme concentration and substrate preference (Fig. 3 ). Notably, the estimated initial reaction rates were similar to those obtained by Different, monitoring NADH production (Supplementary Fig. S3). Furthermore, the accumulation of β-alanine rapidly reached a plateau, even though 5669% of the substrate remained, suggesting that enzymatic activity was subject to product inhibition (Fig. 3).
Production of GABA and dell marketing, β-alanine by recombinant Md AMADH1 (A) and Md AMADH2 (B) incubated with ABAL or APAL. For assay of ABAL-dependent activities, the 5 mL reactions contained 50 nM protein, 1 mM NAD + and 200 ( Md AMADH1) or 300 ( Md AMADH2) μM ABAL, whereas for Different Types assay of APAL-dependent activities, the reactions contained 10 nM protein, 1 mM NAD + and 30 ( Md AMADH1) or 20 ( Md AMADH2) μM APAL. Data represent the relations mean of three technical replicates from a typical enzyme preparation. Essay. Closed and are photoreceptors, open circles represent GABA and β-alanine, respectively. The estimated rates of GABA production at 30 s were 0.96 and Abuse:, 2.16 μmol min −1 mg −1 protein for Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2, respectively. The corresponding rates of β-alanine production were 11.95 and 13.4 μmol min −1 mg −1 protein, respectively.
Substrate conversion after 15 min was 1217% and 3144%, respectively, for the ABAL- and APAL-dependent reactions. 3.4 Subcellular localization of apple AMADHs. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the Md AMADHs, as well as At ALDH10A9, Os AMADH1, Os AMADH2, Zm AMADH1a, Zm AMADH1b, Zm AMADH2, Hv AMADH1, Ps AMADH1, Ps AMADH2 and gaius octavian, Sl AMADH2 proteins possess a C-terminal canonical peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1, SKL), whereas At ALDH10A8, Hv AMADH2, So BADH and Sl AMADH1 do not (Supplementary Fig. S1). At ALDH10A8 is reported to localize to the leucoplast, whereas So BADH and Hv BBD2 are plastidial and cytosolic, respectively[18,33]. The subcellular location of Abuse: Different Essay Sl AMADH1 has not been studied. Gaius Octavian. To examine the subcellular localization of apple AMADHs, Arabidopsis protoplasts were transformed with GFP-fusion constructs and organellar markers such as mCherry peroxisomal and RFP cytosolic were employed. The subcellular locations of the GFP-tagged AMADHs were determined by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. In all cases, both C- and N-terminal GFP fusion constructs were made to exclude the possibility that localization was dependent on the position of the GFP tag.
GFP- Md AMADH1 did not co-localize with the Abuse: Different Types Essay mCherry peroxisomal marker (Fig. 4ad), whereas GFP- Md AMADH2 displayed punctate structures and dell marketing, partially co-localized with the mCherry peroxisomal marker (il). This finding demonstrated that members of the apple AMADHs are present in two different subcellular compartments, the cytosol and the peroxisome, as described above for several plant species. Different Types. This might indicate non-redundant functions for the Md AMADHs at the protein level. Md AMADH1-GFP and Md AMADH2-GFP co-expressed with RFP cytosolic were exclusively localized in cytosol (Fig. 4eh and mp, respectively). Similar behavior has been observed with C-terminal GFP fusion constructs of Md AO1. This suggests that the define customer targeting role of the C-terminus PTS1 is Different Types masked in the Md AMADH1-GFP and Md AMADH2-GFP fusion proteins by the GFP tag. Subcellular localization of Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 fusion proteins in Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts.
Confocal laser scanning microscopic images of Doomsday: The Rebuttal a protoplast transformed simultaneously with plasmid expressing either GFP- Md AMADH1 (a), Md AMADH1-GFP (e), GFP- Md AMADH2 (i) or Md AMADH2-GFP (m) (i.e., the first column) and mCherry peroxisomal marker (b and Abuse:, j) or RFP cytosolic marker (f and n) (i.e., the second column). Dell Marketing. A merged image of the GFP and mCherry or RFP fluorescence images is shown in the third column (c, g, k and o) and co-localization of green and red fluorescence signals appears yellow. Cell morphology was observed with transmitted light microscopy and is shown in fourth column (d, h, i and p). Images were taken 16 h after transformation. The experiment was repeated three times with similar results. Bars represent 10 μm. Abuse: Different Types. GABA can be derived via the oxidative deamination of polyamines in addition to the GABA-shunt pathway. A pharmacological approach estimated that the are photoreceptors terminal oxidation of putrescine accounts for 39% of the GABA concentration in roots of soybean seedlings exposed to salt stress. There is a paucity of information about the role of Abuse: Essay polyamine oxidation in GABA biosynthesis in fruit. Recently, Zarei et al. described an Doomsday: The Rebuttal Essay, apple fruit Md AO1 that is Abuse: Different Essay peroxisomal and has high catalytic efficiency for erlkonig 1,3-diaminopropane and putrescine to Different Types, produce APAL and ABAL, respectively. In the present study, we identified two members of the ALDH10 protein family which encode apple AMADHs.
The pH optimum for Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 was 9.8. These findings are consistent with the dell marketing pH optima (9.410.2) of plant AMADHs that have been previously characterized (i.e., Zm AMADH1a, Zm AMADH2, Sl AMADH2, Ps AMADH1, Ps AMADH2, Sl AMADH1, Zm AMADH1b and Hv BBD1)[13,33]. It has been proposed that the catalytic C294 ( Md AMADH numbering) preserves its thiolate form when pH is significantly above 8 to accelerate nucleophilic attack at the substrate. Types Essay. The apple AMADHs studied here favored NAD + as the Essay on The of Midway cofactor over NADP + with saturating APAL. Previously, Kope#x10d;ný et al. reported that the E188 residue (pea, apple or Arabidopsis AMADH numbering) is responsible for NAD + preference (Supplementary Fig. S1), indicating that the Abuse: Different Types apple AMADHs are probably NAD + -dependent enzymes. The apple AMADHs had negligible activities with BAL, findings similar to those previously reported for Zm AMADH1b, Zm AMADH2, Sl AMADH2 and Ps AMADHs. Notably, Muñoz-Clares and co-workers[14,15] demonstrated that residue position 441 (SoBADH numbering) must be occupied by A or C for efficient BAL oxidation. Essay On The Battle. For example, the BAL-dependent activity of Types Essay a So BADH A441I mutant is only 0.5% of that for the wild-type protein. Customer. This position (residue 444 based on Types Essay, numbering of the apple and Arabidopsis AMADHs) is generally occupied by an Ile residue in plant AMADHs (Supplementary Fig. S1); exceptions are Zm AMADH1a, Hv AMADH2 and dell marketing, So BADH, which have high affinity for BAL and where I is replaced by C, C and A, respectively[14,15], suggesting that the Types apple ALDH10 family proteins studied here should not be very active, if at all, with BAL.
In the present study, we demonstrated that in dell marketing, vitro APAL was preferred over Types, ABAL as a substrate (Table 1 andFig. Dell Marketing. 3). However, the compartmentation and pH optimum of the enzyme, as well as availability of the Different Types alternative substrates, would be important determinants in the functional role of the enzyme in vivo. Notably, the use of multiple substrates (i.e., substrate ambiguity) by an enzyme is dell marketing becoming a better recognized phenomenon, which is thought to enhance the performance of cellular functions. Subcellular localization studies of apple AMADHs were conducted using Arabidopsis cell suspension protoplasts. A majority of Essay plant AMADHs is targeted to the peroxisome, as indicted by the presence of the C-terminal PTS1, but there is also evidence for on The Battle of Midway plastidial and cytosolic localizations[16,18,33].
The presence of canonical PTS1 (SKL) suggests that Md AMADH1 and Md AMADH2 would localize to the peroxisome. Surprisingly, the expressed Md AMADH1 fusion protein appeared to Abuse: Essay, reside in the cytosol, whereas Md AMADH2 was partially targeted to the peroxisome (Fig. 4 ). Notably, both proteins carry identical canonical PTS1 (SKL) and residues in close proximity. Ma and Reumann demonstrated that four and more acidic residues located in close proximity to schubert erlkonig, SKL (10 amino acid upstream of Abuse: Types SKL) are incompatible with peroxisomal targeting, altering SKL to a non-functional PTS1. The apple AMADHs possess two acidic residues in close proximity. This may explain partial localization of Md AMADH2 in the peroxisome, although the minimum number of gaius octavian acidic residues that are required to hinder peroxisome targeting by SKL has not been determined. Unpredictable masking of PTS1 surface exposure and competition between targeting signals are potential explanations for Essay a non-functional SKL which could prevent Md AMADH1 from gaius octavian, reaching the peroxisome.
Recently, it has been reported that peroxisomal proteins often exhibit dual localization and this phenomenon is more widespread than previously thought. Cytosolic AMADH1 could be retained in Abuse:, the cytosol by various mechanisms such protein-protein interaction, protein conformational change in what, response to pH, or other post-translational modifications, and then released and targeted to the organelle via stress-specific signal perception. This hypothesis would be in agreement with the marked difference between the slightly acidic pH of Abuse: Types Essay cytosol and the strongly alkaline pH optima of AMADHs, and dell marketing, with the targeting of the N-terminus and full-length protein of At ALDH10A8 to leucoplasts and Abuse:, cytosol, respectively. This point must be clarified by future study. Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005. Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005. This research was supported by funds to erlkonig, BJS from the Individual Discovery Grants Program of the Natural Sciences and Types Essay, Engineering Research Council () of Canada.
The authors thank Dr. Gordon J. Hoover for conducting the amino acid analysis, Dr. Robert T. Mullen for dell marketing providing the fluorescent protein-containing vectors, the ALDH nomenclature committee for designating systematic names for our apple genes, and an anonymous reviewer for Abuse: Types Essay providing excellent comments on an earlier version of the schubert manuscript. Supplementary data associated with this article can be found, in the online version, athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.005. FEBS Letters 589 (2015) 1873-3468 2015 Federation of Abuse: European Biochemical Societies. ABAL; 4-aminobutanal; ALDH; aldehyde dehydrogenase; AMADH; aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase; AO; amine oxidase; APAL; 3-aminopropanal; BAL; betaine aldehyde; GABA; 4-aminobutyrate; GFP; green fluorescent protein; NAD(P) + ; nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate); PTS1; peroxisomal targeting signal 1; RFP; red fluorescent protein; 4-Aminobutyrate; 4-Aminobutanal; Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase; Peroxisomal targeting signal; Polyamine; Apple. Schubert Erlkonig. Issue online: 18 August 2015 Version of record online: 18 August 2015 Manuscript Accepted: 6 August 2015 Manuscript Revised: 4 August 2015 Manuscript Received: 25 May 2015. Supplementary information. Supplementary Materials and Methods, Figs. S1S3 and Table S1. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors.
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Shelp , Apple fruit copper amine oxidase isoforms: peroxisomal MdAO1 prefers diamines as substrates, whereas extracellular MdAO2 exclusively utilizes monoamines . Plant Cell Physiol. , 56 , ( 2015 ), 137 147 . Essay Battle. CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 1 8 J. Abuse:. Planas-Portell , M. Gallart , A.F. Tiburcio , T. The Rebuttal. Altabella , Copper-containing amine oxidases contribute to Different Essay, terminal polyamine oxidation in peroxisomes and apoplast of erlkonig Arabidopsis thaliana . Abuse: Different Types. BMC Plant Biol. On The Battle. , 13 , ( 2013 ), 109 CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 9 H. Flores , P. Filner , Polyamine catabolism in higher plants: characterization of pyrroline dehydrogenase . Abuse: Essay. Plant Growth Regul. , 3 , ( 1985 ), 277 291 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 97 10 B. Weilgat , K. Kleczkowski , Putrescine in pea seedlings . Doomsday: Essay. Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. , 40 , ( 1971 ), 197 207 . Abuse: Different Types. CrossRef 11 V. Vasiliou , D.C. Dell Marketing. Thompson , C. Abuse: Different. Smith , M. Fujita , Y. Chen , Aldehyde dehydrogenases: from eye crystallins to metabolic disease and cancer stem cells . Chem. Biol. Interact. , 202 , ( 2013 ), 2 10 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 19 12 H. Riveros-Rosasa , L. González-Segura , A. Julián-Sánchez , Á.G. Essay. Díaz-Sánchez , R.A. Muñoz-Clares , Structural determinants of substrate specificity in Essay, aldehyde dehydrogenases . Chem. Biol. Interact. , 202 , ( 2013 ), 51 61 . Gaius Octavian. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 13 D. Kope#x10d;ný , R. Kon#x10d;itíková , M. Abuse: Different Types Essay. Tylichová , A. Vigouroux , H. Moskalíková , M. Soural , M. #x160;ebela , S. Moréra , Plant ALDH10 family: identifying critical residues for schubert erlkonig substrate specificity and trapping a thiohemiacetal intermediate . J. Essay. Biol.
Chem. , 288 , ( 2013 ), 9491 9507 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of dell marketing Science® Times Cited: 7 14 Á.G. Díaz-Sánchez , L. González-Segura , C. Mújica-Jiménez , E. Rudiño-Piñera , C. Montiel , L.P. Martínez-Castilla , R.A. Muñoz-Clares , Amino acid residues critical for specificity for betaine aldehyde of the Abuse: Essay plant ALDH10 isoenzyme involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine . Plant Physiol. , 158 , ( 2012 ), 1570 1582 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 19 15 R.A. Muñoz-Clares , H. Riveros-Rosas , G. Garza-Ramos , L. González-Segura , C. Mújica-Jiménez , A. Julián-Sánchez , Exploring the evolutionary route of the acquisition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by plant ALDH10 enzymes: implications for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine . BMC Plant Biol. , 14 , ( 2014 ), 149 CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 16 T.D. Missihoun , J. Gaius Octavian. Schmitz , R. Klug , H.H.
Kirch , D. Bartels , Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis with different sub-cellular localization affect stress responses . Planta , 233 , ( 2011 ), 369 382 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 17 L.M. Bradbury , S.A. Gillies , D.J. Brushett , D.L. Waters , R.J. Henry , Inactivation of an Different Types, aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase is responsible for fragrance in rice . Plant Mol. Biol. , 68 , ( 2008 ), 439 449 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of dell marketing Science® Times Cited: 61 18 P. Weigel , E.A. Weretilnyk , A.D.
Hanson , Betaine aldehyde oxidation by Abuse: Types Essay, spinach chloroplasts . Plant Physiol. , 82 , ( 1986 ), 753 759 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 109 19 J. Lee , D.R. Rudell , P.J. Davies , C.B. Watkins , Metabolic changes in 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-treated ‘Empire’ apple fruit during storage . Metabolomics , 8 , ( 2012 ), 742 753 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 29 20 C.P. Trobacher , S.M. Clark , G.G. Erlkonig. Bozzo , R.T. Mullen , J.R. DeEll , B.J. Shelp , Catabolism of GABA in apple fruit: subcellular localization and biochemical characterization of two γ-aminobutyrate transaminases . Postharvest Biol.
Technol. , 75 , ( 2013 ), 106 113 . Abuse: Types Essay. CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 12 21 K.J. Livak , T.D. Schmittigen , Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(−delta delta C ( T )) method . Methods , 25 , ( 2001 ), 402 408 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 39019 22 P. Dell Marketing. Pouparda , L. Parisib , C. Campiona , S. Ziadia , P. Simoneaua , A wound- and ethephon-inducible PR-10 gene subclass from apple is differentially expressed during infection with a compatible and an incompatible race of Venturia inaequalis . Physiol. Mol. Abuse: Different Types. Plant Pathol. , 62 , ( 2003 ), 3 12 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of define relations Science® Times Cited: 22 23 T. Czechowski , M. Stitt , T. Altmann , M.K. Udvardi , W.R. Scheible , Genome-wide identification and testing of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in Arabidopsis . Plant Physiol. , 139 , ( 2005 ), 5 17 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 1134 24 T. Maniatis , E.F.
Fritsch , J. Sambrook , Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual . 2nd ed. ( 1989 ), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor, New York 25 W.L. Allan , B.J. Shelp , Fluctuations of γ-aminobutyrate, γ-hydroxybutyrate, and related amino acids in Arabidopsis leaves as a function of the light-dark cycle . Can. J. Bot. , 84 , ( 2006 ), 1339 1346 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 26 A. Zarei , A.P. Körbes , P. Younessi , G. Types. Montiel , A. Champion , J. Memelink , Two GCC boxes and AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor ORA59 in jasmonate/ethylene-mediated activation of the PDF1.2 promoter in Arabidopsis . Plant Mol. Biol. , 75 , ( 2011 ), 321 331 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 58 27 S.L.
Ching , S.K. Gidda , A. Gaius Octavian. Rochon , O.R. Different Types Essay. van Cauwenberghe , B.J. Shelp , R.T. Mullen , Glyoxylate reductase isoform 1 is localized in the cytosol and not peroxisomes in plant cells . Doomsday: Essay. J. Integr. Plant Biol. Abuse: Types. , 54 , ( 2012 ), 152 168 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 10 28 J.M. Shockey , S.K. Gidda , D.C.
Chapital , J.C. Kuan , P.K. Dhanoa , J.M. Bland , S.J. Doomsday: Essay. Rothstein , R.T. Essay. Mullen , J.M. Dyer , Tung tree DGAT1 and DGAT2 have nonredundant functions in are photoreceptors, triacylglycerol biosynthesis and are localized to different subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum . Plant Cell , 9 , ( 2006 ), 2294 2313 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Abuse: Different Types Science® Times Cited: 212 29 M. Axelos , C. Doomsday: Essay. Gurie , L. Mazzolini , C. Bardet , B. Lescure , A protocol for Abuse: Different transient gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts isolated from cell suspension cultures . Plant Physiol. Biochem. , 30 , ( 1992 ), 123 128 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 267 30 J. Schirawski , S. Planchais , A.L. Haenni , An improved protocol for the preparation of protoplasts from an established Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture and infection with RNA of turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus: a simple and reliable method . J. Virol. Methods , 86 , ( 2000 ), 85 94 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 28 31 M. Tylichová , D. Kope#x10d;ný , S. Moréra , P. Briozzo , R. Lenobel , J. Erlkonig. Snégaroff , M. #x160;ebela , Structural and functional characterization of plant aminoaldehyde from Pisum sativum with a broad specificity for natural and synthetic aminoaldehydes . Different Types. J. Mol. Biol. , 396 , ( 2010 ), 870 882 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 24 32 D. Kope#x10d;ný , M. Tylichová , J. Snegaroff , R. Kon#x10d;itíková , H. Popelková , M. #x160;ebela , Carboxylate and aromatic active-site residues are determinants of high affinity binding of on The of Midway ω-aminoaldehydes to plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase . FEBS J. , 278 , ( 2011 ), 3130 3139 . Different Types Essay. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 33 T. Fujiwara , K. Schubert Erlkonig. Hori , K. Ozaki , Y. Yokota , S. Mitsuya , T. Ichiyanagi , T. Hattori , T. Takabe , Enzymatic characterization of peroxisomal and cytosolic betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase in barley . Abuse: Different Types. Physiol.
Plant. , 134 , ( 2008 ), 22 30 . Erlkonig. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 34 S.G. Abuse: Types Essay. Xing , Y.B. Jun , Z.W. Hau , L.Y. Liang , Higher accumulation of #x263;-aminobutyric acid induced by salt stress through stimulating the activity of diamine oxidase in Glycine max (L.) Merr. roots . Plant Physiol. Biochem. , 45 , ( 2007 ), 560 566 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 58 35 K.L. Deyman , C.J. Brikis , G.G. Bozzo , B.J. Shelp , Impact of 1-methylcyclopropene and The Rebuttal, controlled atmosphere storage on polyamine and 4-aminobutyrate levels in ‘Empire’ apple fruit . Front.
Plant Sci. , 5 , ( 2014 ), 144 CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 36 C. Pandya , J. Farelli , D. Dunaway-Mariano , K.N. Allen , Enzyme promiscuity: engine of evolutionary innovation . J. Biol. Chem. , 289 , ( 2014 ), 30229 30236 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 15 37 C. Ma , S. Reumann , Improved prediction of peroxisomal PTS1 proteins from genome sequences based on experimental subcellular targeting analyses as exemplified for protein kinases . J. Exp. Bot. , 59 , ( 2008 ), 3767 3779 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 24 38 J. Ast , A.C. Stiebler , J. Abuse:. Freitag , M. Bölker , Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins . Front. Physiol. What Are Photoreceptors. , 4 , ( 2013 ), 297 CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 17 39 M.C.
Cheng , E.J. Different Types Essay. Hsieh , J.H. Chen , H.Y. Chen , T.P. Dell Marketing. Lin , Arabidopsis RGLG2, functioning as a RING E3 ligase, interacts with AtERF53 and Different, negatively regulates the plant drought stress response . Plant Physiol. Are Photoreceptors. , 158 , ( 2012 ), 363 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 41. Articles related to the one you are viewing. Abuse: Different Essay. 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
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EDITABLE Reading Challenge Incentive Reading Log. EDITABLE Reading Challenge Incentive Reading Log Give students incentive to reading at home and in Types, the classroom by rewarding them with. READING LUNCH BUNCH! This is an editable document of 10 LABELS that can be printed on sheets of 2 x 4 labels or regular paper. What Are Photoreceptors! This file goes along beautifully with another product, my Word Word File Folder. Be sure to check it out! All of the word work activities listed on this product correlate with activities implemented by Words Their Way. Types! I've also used it with our currently adopted reading series, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: Journeys.
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Speeding ticket for students who rush through their work, Brag tags, classroom management charts, forms, and notes at your fingertips! Forms to Essay on The of Midway help busy teachers with classroom management and behavior management Great tools to use when you are documenting for RTI! Print and Go Behavior and Types Classroom Management Forms will save you time when you need it the most. Just added Pencil Brag Tags (7-7-16), sign, and student book. This is perfect for your Back to School lessons when you are. Punch Cards for Homework / Behavior Reinforcement / Rewards FOR EVERY SEASON.
These cute little punch cards can be used to keep track of the dell marketing homework activities your students turn in or as part of an Different Types individual behavior reinforcement plan. Included in this set are punch cards for Back-To-School, Apple Picking Time, Halloween, Thanksgiving, Christmas, Winter, Valentine's Day, St. Essay On The! Patrick's Day, Spring, and Summer. Also, to allow for Different Types Essay differentiation, every set includes pages with 10, 15 and gaius octavian 20 hole punches! In my own classroom, we keep these cards in a special pocket. Star Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Star Reward Binder is a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. These are the pages to put in Types, your Star Reward Binder.
Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their Star Punch Cards (separate product). This is a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for customer homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The students can earn a. Punch Cards for Homework / Behavior Reinforcement / Rewards ***FREEBIE*** These cute little punch cards can be used to keep track of the Essay homework activities your students turn in or as part of an individual behavior reinforcement plan. In my own classroom, we keep these cards in a special pocket chart with a hole-puncher close by.
As students sort and turn in their homework, they count how many activities they are turning in and then punch out that many holes on their punch card. When they've punched out all the holes on their card, they get to go to the Treasure. Superhero Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Superhero Reward Binder is a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. Gaius Octavian! These are the Different Essay pages to what put in your Superhero Reward Binder. Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their SUPERHERO PUNCH CARDS (separate product). This is a great way to Abuse: motivate positive attitudes and dell marketing excellent behavior! My students love to earn punches on their cards and get so excited when they get to Different pick something from our reward. Monster Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Monster Reward Binder is a part of The Rebuttal Essay a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways.
These are the pages to put in Different Types Essay, your Monster Reward Binder. Your students will get to dell marketing choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their MONSTER PUNCH CARDS (separate product). This is Abuse: a great way to Doomsday: The Rebuttal motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The students. Hollywood Themed Homework Reward Punch Cards.
Hollywood Here We Come! This homework punch card works perfect for any star studded classroom! Each night that students do their homework, they can earn one punch on their punch card. When they have earned all of their punches, students will receive a homework pass good for Types one homework assignment. If multiple assignments are given a night, students could earn a punch for each assignment completed as well!
Also included are three cards that can be used for define relations ANY assignment/activity you. Punch Cards for Tracking Homework / Behavior Reinforcement / Rewards. These cute little punch cards can be used to Different Types keep track of the homework activities your students turn in what are photoreceptors, or as part of an Abuse: individual behavior reinforcement plan. What Are Photoreceptors! In my own classroom, we keep these cards in a special pocket chart with a hole-puncher close by. As students sort and turn in their homework, they count how many activities they are turning in Abuse: Types, and then punch out that many holes on their punch card. When they've punched out all the holes on their card, they get to gaius octavian go to Different Types Essay the Treasure. Frog Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program)
The Frog Reward Binder is dell marketing a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. These are the pages to put in your Frog Reward Binder. Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on Different Types Essay, their Frog Punch Cards (separate product). This is a great way to Battle motivate positive attitudes and Essay excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. Define Customer! The students can earn a.
Owl Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Owl Reward Binder is a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. Abuse: Different Types Essay! These are the pages to put in your Owl Reward Binder. Your students will get to define choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their OWL PUNCH CARDS (separate product). Different Types Essay! This is a great way to motivate positive attitudes and define excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas.
The students can earn a. Cowboy Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Cowboy Reward Binder is a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of Abuse: Essay ways. These are the pages to put in your Cowboy Reward Binder. Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their Cowboy Punch Cards (separate product). Schubert! This is Types a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior!
You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The students can. Do you have a problem with sending homework home and NEVER getting it back?? This is a fun incentive to keep those papers coming back and keep them practicing their important skills at home!! What's included in what, this pack? • Certificates for Abuse: Types Essay every month • Certificates to add your own celebration • Wall display to Essay on The Battle of Midway show off their membership! • Tracking sheets - By month or weeks Get the Types kids EXCITED to bring their homework back to school! They want to join the gaius octavian club. Have fun with this!! Bee Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Bee Reward Binder is Different Types a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of schubert ways.
These are the pages to put in your Bee Reward Binder. Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their BEE PUNCH CARDS (separate product). This is a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. Abuse: Different! The students can earn a. Christmas Homework Pass - Incentive Reward Coupon. Comments and dell marketing Ratings: ? ? ? ? Perfect! Saved me some time during the busy week before the Different Types Essay holiday break! ? ? ? ? These made the perfect Christmas gifts for my students! ? ? ? ? My students LOVED these!! Thanks again! ? ? ? ? Super cute and Doomsday: The Rebuttal just what I needed! No prep, just print!
Thank you so much! Happy holidays! Christmas Homework Pass . Merry Christmas! This unique Christmas Homework Pass Set is a great addition to your classroom. Quick and easy to Different Types use! Includes. Paw Print Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Paw Print Reward Binder is a part of Doomsday: a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways.
These are the pages to put in your Paw Print Reward Binder. Your students will get to Abuse: choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their PAW PRINT PUNCH CARDS (separate product). This is a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for on The Battle homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The. Beach Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Beach Reward Binder is Abuse: Different Types a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. These are the pages to put in your Beach Reward Binder. Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on gaius octavian, their BEACH PUNCH CARDS (separate product).
This is a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for Types Essay homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The students can. Monkey Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Monkey Reward Binder is a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. These are the pages to put in your Monkey Reward Binder. Your students will get to what choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their MONKEY PUNCH CARDS (separate product).
This is Different a great way to gaius octavian motivate positive attitudes and Abuse: Different Types Essay excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The students can. Back to school classroom procedural handbook. This editable word document back to school classroom procedural handbook includes the following procedures; start of schubert erlkonig day routine, pencil sharpening, welcome work routine, morning meeting, bathroom and Types drinks, asking a question, while others are talking, exiting and entering the classroom, walking the halls, turning papers in, homework, take home binders, packing up, exiting at define customer relations, the end of the day, bringing toys to school, star student, classroom economy, classroom jobs, consequences, behavior.
Penguin Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Penguin Reward Binder is Abuse: Different Types a part of a classroom management system where students earn rewards through a variety of gaius octavian ways. Different Types Essay! These are the gaius octavian pages to put in your Penguin Reward Binder. Different Essay! Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their PENGUIN PUNCH CARDS (separate product). Relations! This is a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject areas. The students.
Sports Reward Binder (Positive Behavior Incentive Program) The Sports Reward Binder is a part of a classroom management system I use in my classroom where students earn rewards through a variety of ways. These are the Different Types Essay pages to put in your Sports Reward Binder. Your students will get to choose their reward after earning 20 punches on their Sports Punch Cards (separate product). This is Doomsday: The Rebuttal Essay a great way to motivate positive attitudes and excellent behavior! You can also use these pages as a motivator for homework completion, reading logs or other subject. Homework Pass for Student Rewards. Fun and rewarding homework passes that can be used as gifts to students. I hand out little gift bags before winter break and include a homework pass. No matter what I put in those gift bags, the Abuse: Different Types homework pass is a favorite!
I use no homework Valentine cards as well. Click to see a video of schubert erlkonig how I use these passes in my own room Sometimes, if a student goes above and Abuse: Different beyond on their homework for many nights in a row, I will honor the Doomsday: Essay effort with a student award of a homework pass. Often. Color a star in on the CLASS REWARD CHART when the class works well and makes a great behavioral choice or base system as a reward for bringing in homework. When all stars are colored spin the CLASS REWARD WHEEL to see what reward the class gets.
A wheel with suggested rewards is Abuse: Different Types Essay included as well as a blank wheel to cater rewards to your class needs/interests. Classroom Punch Card Collection with Corresponding Reward Passes. Use these punch cards to manage the return of books and homework, encourage healthy snack choices, track iPad turns, and much more! Each punch card has 15 stars for 15 punches. This pack is unique because corresponding reward passes are included! For example, a No Homework pass is earned after 15 punches on Essay on The of Midway, the homework card. The Table of Different Contents is Doomsday: listed below: Suggestions for Abuse: Types Essay Using This Resource Returning Homework Punch Card Homework Reward – No Homework Pass Clean Desk Punch. Reward Slips, Homework Passes, Bonus Slips and Essay More! Back to School. This set includes templates to reward students, to Different provide free time for good behavior, to award bonus points for assignments or behaviors, and to give homework passes.
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McKinsey Case Study Analysis Essay. This paper applies the management by objective (MBO) philosophy of Peter Drucker to Abuse: Essay, the case study analysis of McKinsey and Company (McKinsey). Founded in 1926 by James “Mac” McKinsey, a University of Chicago professor, the firm started as an gaius octavian, accounting and engineering consultancy agency, which experienced rapid growth. Essay. This paper is a plan that outlines key aspects of define relations MBO and how it will have both positive and negative effects when applied to the McKinsey case study. Mac recruited experienced executives and trained them on an integrated approached he coined as the General Survey Outline (Mintzberg, et al., 2003, p. 319).
Over the years, the firm’s general approach to consultancy lacked specialized knowledge concerning industry competencies. This paper brings into focus McKinsey’s potential to make a paradigm shift, and provides recommendations to Different Types Essay, implement MBO to increase the organizations effectiveness internationally. The leaders of McKinsey wanted to transform the firm of practice development, (“snowball making” the internal name) to client development (“snowball throwing”). To achieve this, the concept of general practitioners would have to change in order to what, keep up with technology and the global marketplace. The paper provides recommendation to aide McKinsey in development, capturing, and leveraging company assets worldwide. McKinsey and Co. Case Study Summary. The McKinsey and Company case study is a presentation of the management of knowledge and learning by a large consulting firm.
The case study discusses the founding and evolution of the company under the direction of a group of Abuse: Different Types professional educators and executives. The company has served as a consultant to elite firms focusing on on The of Midway issues important to top management for 70 years. The long history of the company is Different Types Essay described with the addition of tables and charts to depict 20 year growth rates, mission and principles, areas of practice, and gaius octavian, functional groups. Succession, employee growth and development; expansion, and Abuse: Types Essay, shrinkage are explained in detail within the case study. The company expanded from the original small organization to one of global proportions and significant stature within the industry. The focus of the text is to depict the management and evolution of the firm through the periods of change and discuss future decisions and direction under a new managing director. Key Aspects of Drucker’s Philosophy. Peter Drucker is recognized as the founder of modern management. He advocated for autonomy, participatory democracy, and doing what one wants. He promoted the creation of a pluralistic institution of a free society that functions and performs.
In searching for dell marketing finding an answer to how individual freedom can be observed in the corporate society considering the power executed by the managers; Drucker developed the managerial philosophy called management by objectives (MBO). According to Hoopes (2003), managers communicate to their subordinates the goals and objectives based on what is required by the organization; consequently, enabling their subordinates to have autonomy and be responsible for what they do at work. Drucker created this philosophy of management with the purpose of giving employees the opportunity to achieve freedom and individual responsibility in an organization. In past articles Drucker had defined freedom as “a responsible choice…between…act one way or another” (as cited by Maciariello, 2005). In addition, Drucker defined the concept of responsibility by stating that responsibility has an external component that involves _accountability to Abuse: Different Essay, a person with authority_ and an internal component that involves _commitment_. Both making responsible choices and be accountable and schubert erlkonig, committed to the person who has authority are the keys for Abuse: Different Types an effective MBO. According to Maciariello (2006) Drucker believed that “leadership is taking responsibility for Essay on The Battle of Midway results” (p. Abuse: Types Essay. 29) and that the leader is expected to show integrity and be a role model for others to follow. Dell Marketing. Regarding the leaders’ responsibility, Drucker stated that the CEO is the only one who can align the internal environment with the external environmental to make certain that the organization understands the demands of the Types external environment [_market, customers, and competitors_]. Drucker’s stated that the most important rule in business is to serve the consumer (Lafley, 2006). In addition, Drucker believed “in the power of strategic ideas and making clear choices…. [and that] the only way you can manage change is to create it” (as cited by Lafley, 2006, p. 7).
Finally, as the founder of modern management, Drucker viewed organizations as a “means through which people find access to social status, community, achievement, and satisfaction [and the leaders as having] the responsibility to ensure that jobs are fulfilling and that individuals contribute fully” (as cited by Lafley, 2006, p. 7). Positive Aspects of Strategies Applied. If McKinsey and The Rebuttal, company were to apply the management theory of Drucker they would identify several positive outcomes related to Abuse:, the management by objectives aspects. The company had experienced expansion into a global market and many changes in management and structure. The company was staffed by professionals with few levels of authority and, according to the case study, run more by consent than decree. The consultants worked within a matrix arrangement with a professional core and contractual element in its operations.
The application of dell marketing MBO would increase the Different Essay performance of the organization by positively identifying the objectives of gaius octavian each employee and their relationship to the objectives of the Abuse: Essay organization. Francis and Bolander (1976) claim that relationships between corporate and employee objectives are vital to a positive outcome for any business. Under management by objectives employees would receive input that would help identify their objectives and time lines for implementation and closeout. Greenwood reiterates Drucker’s theory that “objectives are not given, are not obvious, are not something that everyone knows” (p. 229). Another provision of the Drucker theory is the continuous tracking of the process and schubert, continuous feedback. This feedback is valuable in increasing the Abuse: Essay productivity of the employee and their completion of tasks.
With all McKinsey managers participating in the development of the strategic plan and cascading the goals and objectives throughout the firm the positive impact of on The management by objectives would be evident. Francis and Bolander (1976) describe the positive outcomes of management by objectives as improved communication, increased motivation, reduced conflict between roles, and attention focused on results, not activities. With the adoption of Druckers management by objectives McKinsey and company would experience the Abuse: Essay positive outcomes described by Francis and Bolander. Outcomes of Implementation. Using Drucker’s theory of management, the evolution of the management styles practiced in the McKinsey and Co. Schubert. were based on decentralizing the centers. Different Types Essay. Once managers established and announced the goals of the organization, they left it up to Essay on The of Midway, the leaders operating in Abuse:, each of their offices to practice their own leadership styles to achieve the goals. They called this strategy “practice leadership” (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, and gaius octavian, Ghoshal, 2003, p.322). The management styles implemented were based on the underlying principle of Drucker’s theory of using power top-down. The results of the implementation were significantly positive and led to the emergence of Different Types management concepts that we see commonly used today, making McKinsey the industry leader of setting numerous industry trends as explained: (a) Knowledge Management – “Knowledge is the lifeblood of Mckinsey”. (Mintzberg, et al. Essay Battle. 2003, p.319). Managers at McKinsey developed a process of knowledge management wherein the task of knowledge management had to be each individual’s responsibility and not just that of the team manager or leader. (b) Knowledge Sharing – By the use of publishing their key findings, employees were able to learn and communicate from each other and understand how processes worked best and most efficiently. (c) Online repository of knowledge – The success of their knowledge sharing documents and Abuse:, papers led management to Doomsday:, develop an online repository of information wherein centers across the globe could access common data and information that was entered by employees from Different Essay, these centers.
This module made a significant impact on the communication among individual centers and the organization as a whole. (d) Identifying Best Practices – With improved communications, managers were able to access information and Essay Battle of Midway, identify best practices that helped improve the efficiency of their applications and systems. Identifying best practices also led to the creation of establishing benchmarks that further assisted enhance and improve defects in processes. Different Types Essay. (e) Inter-office bulletins – The introduction of interoffice bulletins and papers led to the development of newsletters and e-letters that modern organizations use today to dell marketing, communicate with their employees globally. (f) Building Customer Loyalty – Using client relationships and training specialists to Abuse: Different Types Essay, build relationships with their clients, McKinsey was one of the pioneering organizations to what are photoreceptors, introduce the concept of customer loyalty. Managers trained their employees to focus only on the clients they worked with and provide then with world class quality service. The idea was to Abuse: Different, gain the customer’s business for life. This concept brought in recurring revenues for McKinsey and what, also helped create a loyal customer base that enhanced McKinsey’s image by in Abuse: Different Types, the industry by word of mouth. (g) Focus on Informational Literacy – The rapid increase in the rate of information literacy made it imperative for employees to be trained and kept abreast of gaius octavian new technologies and offerings that helped them sell better, communicate effectively, learn faster about new products and services, and enhance their own skills. (h) Employee growth and enhancement – Managers at McKinsey saw the value in retaining their workforce by providing the training and helping them hone their skills to perform efficiently. They paid attention to their employee’s growth patterns and career paths and assisted them in developing their profiles so they could move them laterally or higher up in the organization without having to search for someone from the outside. This also helped build the Abuse: employee knowledge base that could be transferred or shared with one another when needed. One of the negative aspects of the evolution was that the organization grew too fast.
Secondly, the on The organization became a victim of technology where most of the teams were virtual teams leading to lack of direct interaction. Different Types Essay. Finally, the decentralization of each business unit, across the define relations globe, led to each unit creating their own processes using the same applications, which resulted in more time being spent in determining best practices of Abuse: Types Essay successful processes. “A change leader sees change as an opportunity. Schubert. A change leader looks for Different change, knows how to find the right changes, and knows how to make them effective both outside the organization and inside it” (Drucker, 2000 as cited in McKenna, 2006). These words spoken by Drucker were as if they were meant for Mr. Gupta as he reviewed the progress of McKinsey Co. Growth had been meeting expectations and they were being rewarded handsomely by schubert the market but Mr. Gupta had begun to question whether McKinsey Co. was, in Drucker’s terms, not just getting things done but getting the right things done.. He questioned, “If this represented the tip of McKinsey’s knowledge and expertise iceberg, how well was the firm doing in developing, capturing, and leveraging this asset in service of its clients worldwide?” (Mintzberg, et al., 2003, p. 319).
After all this was the second component of the McKinsey Mission Statement. Abuse: Different Types Essay. No where had this rang truer than in the halls of McKinsey Co. They had experienced tremendous growth and change over are photoreceptors, the decades and like many others saw their share of recessions but they had continued to grow into their present International stardom in spite of it all. Drucker, would concur with Mr. Gupta’s questioning their success irrespective of their huge windfalls. Abuse: Types. He would caution others in that success is not inevitable or forever and can quickly evaporate if one’s focus is not on the right things. Drucker, wrote of the knowledge worker, a description that applied to most, in the 21st century and he spoke of the importance of efficiency but more importantly about gaius octavian getting the right things done. This was the obvious question that was plaguing Mr. Gupta.
He cited three intersecting concerns of the knowledge-driven age that were making the Types Essay task more difficult and complex. He wondered if his initiatives would be enough. The first concern rests in the amount and rate of define customer relations change. Second, the increasing expectations and expertise, and Different Types Essay, finally, the firm’s success itself contributed to the difficulty, in linking and integrating the consultants and the worldwide offices. Drucker, in writing on The Rebuttal Essay what executives must do would applaud Mr. Gupta for his foresight. “Drucker wrote of ‘five habits of the mind’ that executives must acquire”: (a) knowing where their time goes. (b) Focusing on outward contribution. (c) Building on strength- their own and others. (d) Concentrating on the few major areas where performance will provide outstanding results. (e) Making effective fundamental decisions (McKenna, 2006, p. 4). The outcomes as highlighted above, those stated by Abuse: Different Mr. Gupta, along with the Practice Olympics were a beginning and answer to the question of whether McKinsey Co. were on erlkonig the right track.
They were not only aligned with the five habits as outlined by Mr. Types Essay. Drucker above but were also realigning with the Mission Statement of McKinsey Co. which stated, “McKinsey Mission: To help our clients make positive, lasting, and substantial improvements in their performance and to define relations, build a great Firm that is able to Different Types Essay, attract, develop, excite, and retain exceptional people” (Mintzberg, et al., 2003, p. 321). The only dell marketing additional recommendation not covered in Mr. Gupta’s initiatives but an underlying principle was that growth had made it impossible to link the knowledge and expertise of the organization. This barrier could be easily addressed within the two-tiered career path he proposed. Allowing for ‘intrapreneurship” to flourish and “to let 1,000 flowers to bloom (Gluck, 1991, as cited in Mintzberg, et al., 2003, p. 324) would be a way to not only ensure the future success of McKinsey Co. Different Types Essay. but would also be a direct link back to the philosophy of Mr.
Gluck, a former and highly successful Managing Director of The Rebuttal Essay McKinsey Co. This analysis of Different Types McKinsey illustrates how MBO can serve as a change agent to help the organization continue to grow in spite of recessions over the years. The implementation of MBO has its negative and positive aspects, yet in a broad since of theories, the positive outweighs the negative. McKinsey is able to live its mission to help clients make positive and lasting improvements while retaining exceptional people. In conclusion, although the organization grew extremely fast and became victims of technology, the implementation of Peter Drucker’s, MBO could increase the firm’s efficiency for two main reasons. What. First, it reduces conflict between roles and focuses on results. However, most notably, MBO improves communication, increases motivation and the McKinsey team transforms into snowball makers (practice development) and Different Essay, snowball throwers (client development) worldwide. Francis, J. G., Bolander, S. F. (1976). MBO and the small organization. Schubert Erlkonig. _American Journal of_ _Small Business,_ _I_(1),1-6. Abuse:. Retrieved March 8, 2007, from EBSCOhost database.
Greenwood, R. G. (1981). Management by objectives: As developed by Peter Drucker, assisted by relations Harold Smiddy. Types Essay. _Academy of Management Review, 6_(2), 225-230. Retrieved March 8, 2007, from EBSCO host database. Lafley, A. G. (2007). What Drucker taught me. _Leadership Excellence_, 24(1), p. 7. Retrieved March 6, 2007, from ProQuest database. Maciariello, J. (2005). Peter F. Drucker on a functioning society. _Leader to Leader_, 2005(37), 26-34. Of Midway. Retrieved March 7, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database. McKenna, Joseph F. (2006). _Drucker in Different Essay, December_. T P; Tooling and Production, 72(12), p. 4. Retrieved March 16, 2007 from EBSCOhost Research Database.
Mintzberg, H., Lampel, J., Quinn, J.B., Ghoshal, S. (2003). _The strategy process-concepts,_ _contexts, cases._ Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 5 July 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on gaius octavian McKinsey Case Study Analysis.
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A Car Salesman Resume to Get the Job. Whether you are just starting to look for work as a car salesman or you have been selling cars for years a car salesman resume can set you apart from the competition. Not all car dealerships and managers that hire salespersons’ depend heavily on resumes to make their selection, but it can make a good first impression. Sales managers that hire car salesmen are typically very cynical by nature and rely more on the skills they use to read people both for selling cars and hiring sales staff plus the Different car sales interview. However a written resume may be just the ticket to get you to the top of the list of potential car sales hires. Some car dealerships don’t even look at the average applicant#8217;s car sales resume they receive because they know that the applicant has prepared the document himself or herself. However the more professional and experienced hiring managers know that a resume can say more about a person than just the words that are printed on the paper. Define! The need for a car salesman resume cover letter is Abuse: Types Essay a matter of personal choice, but not nearly as critical as it is what are photoreceptors with other professions. Preparing Your Car Salesman Resume.
A car salesman resume description includes the name, address, contact information past work experience including the dates and education. Abuse: Different Essay! Even if you have never been a car salesman this work experience is still important and it should be included. I have included several resume templates for car salesmen that you can use to prepare your resume (see below). Gaius Octavian! I have also posted some resume samples you can use as a reference to formulate your document. Of course you can have someone write your resume for you for a price, but remember you are looking to Different Types, land a job selling cars. If you can’t put together a simple resume maybe you should rethink your desire to gaius octavian, sell cars for Abuse: a living.
The resume is your first chance to sell yourself to your prospective dealership. A quick tip here, it doesn’t need to are photoreceptors, be a book or even a chapter in Abuse: Different Types Essay a book, but it should sell you in as few words as possible. Resume Tips for Becoming a Car Salesperson. Schubert! When you write your automotive sales resume follow these simple tips that are specific for the automobile industry and Different Types Essay, the way sales managers or hiring managers read resumes for gaius octavian future car salesmen and car saleswomen. Limit your resume to one page. Use quality paper for Abuse: Types printing your resume. It should be easy to read. Use bullet points and headers. On The Of Midway! Include all contact information, home phone, cell phone and email.
Include computer familiarity because today’s car salesman will be using online CRM systems and email to perform the job. Don’t use specific dates for work experience and education only years. Types Essay! Have a friend or family member read your resume for an objective appraisal. Explain any gaps in gaius octavian employment. Its OK to omit some work experience when it’s over Abuse: Different Types Essay, ten to fifteen years in the past and not critical to the position for which you are applying. If you had ten jobs in the 10 years you better have a good explanation prepared. Don’t lie and make things up on Essay on The, your resume. Essay! Use a template to create your car salesman resume by Essay on The Battle adding your information and then adjusting for readability. Sections of a the Car Salesman Resume. Essay! Information : This section is self-explanatory you just need to on The Battle, include all your personal information, name, address, zip code, home phone, cell phone and email address. Abuse: Different Essay! Objective: This section of the resume is Essay of Midway where you tell prospective employers why you are applying to work at their dealership.
It should be simple and consist of one or two sentences. If you never sold cars before you should address your desire to start a car sales career. If you have sold cars before you should be looking for Abuse: Different Types Essay a bigger, better dealer that will allow you to excel and gaius octavian, put your sales skills to good use. Experience: This is where you will list your work experience and the years worked. Abuse: Different Essay! The most recent will be first and the rest listed in reverse chronological order. If you are an experienced car salesperson you will list the dealerships where you sold including the address or at least the city and state. However if you have never been a car salesman your work history is still important and should be included on erlkonig, your resume. Skills: This section will include anything that you think might be of value to Different, a car salesperson. If you have sold automobiles in the past you could list any special training that was provided by the dealer and/or auto manufacturers.
Include any automaker certifications or awards you may have received or skill levels achieved. You could list average cars sold per month over the past year, ranking at gaius octavian current dealership and Abuse: Different Types, your average car salesman salary if appropriate. For those of Essay, you that never sold a car in your life list any skills, experiences or special training that could be transferred over to Types Essay, the profession of car sales or anything skills listed in the car salesman job description. Good buzzwords to use on your car salesperson resume are consistency, positive attitude, goals, energetic, communication skills and computer skills such as Microsoft Office and email. Education: This section contains a chronological list of your formal education like college, high school, tech schools and any special skills training even if it does directly pertain to are photoreceptors, car sales including the years completed. Types Essay! References: In most cases you car resume should say “References available upon request”. However if you have some personal references in define customer the business and especially at the dealership where you are applying for a sales position by all means include them. If you were referred by a current employee that could influence the Different Types person that is doing the hiring include them.
If you have a recommendation letter for car salesman by all means include with your resume. The Rebuttal! When it comes to hiring car salespeople the car salesman resume will rarely be the deciding factor, but if it is easy to Essay, read and on one page it will be read. If it contains pertinent information and are photoreceptors, it looks like it has been prepared by Different Essay a potential employee that is willing to go the extra mile it will make you stand out from the crowd. Anything to improve your chances of becoming a car salesman should be worth the effort. Doomsday: The Rebuttal Essay! If you have a computer with word processing capabilities you can use the salesperson resume templates below. Later Fresh Up on the Lot. Sample Car Sales Resume Examples. 2017 Car Sales Professional.
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Essay On My Dear Mother Essays and Research Papers. of great admiration for and love of his mother are evident throughout the poem. The opening line with its succession of superlatives, 'most . near', 'most dear ' and 'most loved', and straight way attests strongly to these feelings. Abuse: Types Essay! His exuberant exclamation near the end of the poem, 'and so I send O all my faith and gaius octavian all my love to Different Types Essay her. 'confirms the strength of these feelings. The warm, humorous, delightfully frank way Baker describes his 'irresistible' mother in the intervening lines also convinces. Bismuth-209 , Comedy , Humour 1152 Words | 3 Pages. A Gift for My Mother The story “A Gift for My Mother ” is a short story written by Viv McDade which . deals with a family of three; a set of define customer relations parents and their daughter. The mother envies the Different Types Essay, beautiful houses with hallways and moulded skirting boards on Doomsday: the other side of the railway, and Abuse: Essay she usually gets angry about the differences between her own family and their property compared to the house on other side of the railway.
The mother is a housewife, and the narrator lets the erlkonig, reader get to know this. Character , Family , Father 969 Words | 3 Pages. ? ”A Gift for My Mother ” Poverty is a subject that is very relevant all over Different Types Essay, the world today. It is an issue, which affects many . people and define customer relations families. Many people have to Abuse: Different Types struggle everyday just to survive. They starve and dell marketing struggle while other people live happy lives without having to worry about if there are enough food or money to survive another day. Different Essay! This is an dell marketing example of the big distinction between the Types, rich and what the poor all over the world. Abuse: Types! In Africa for Doomsday: The Rebuttal Essay, instance poverty is Different Types Essay, very common, because. Africa , Family , Father 995 Words | 2 Pages. Essay on schubert erlkonig Mother INTRODUCTION . MOTHER - A GIFT FROM ALLAH MOTHER - THE FIRST AND BEST SCHOOL OF A CHILD MOTHER AND ISLAM MOTHER - OUR BEST COMPANY RESPECT OF A MOTHER CONCLUSION Edwin Hubbell Chapin says, “No language can express the power, and beauty, and heroism, and majesty of Abuse: Essay a mother’s love.
It shrinks not where man cowers, and grows stronger where man. Love , Mother , Mothers 1107 Words | 3 Pages. My idol! My father died when I was very young so my mother is schubert erlkonig, not only a mom but also a dad. She . is the woman whom I admire most and this is a person has been affecting me a lots. She has taught me neither knowledge nor the way to Abuse: Different Types become a good person.
She is a successful woman in my eyes. Essay On The Of Midway! I think my mother I very beautiful. She has a small round face with a straight nose and Types Essay fair complexion. Her long black hair always is dell marketing, bounden tidily behind. Abuse: Different Essay! She also has a nice smile that makes her face. Family , Father , High school 1150 Words | 3 Pages. AFTER YOU, MY DEAR ALPHONSE SHIRLEY JACKSON After You, My Dear Alphonse Children not . infrequently put their elders to shame. In this story, the innocent eye is at work with all its resultant irony. Mrs. Wilson was just taking the gingerbread out of the oven when she heard Johnny outside talking to customer someone. “Johnny,” she called, “you’re late. Come in Abuse: Different, and get your lunch.” “Just a minute, Mother ,” Johnny said. “After you, my dear Alphonse.” “After you, my dear Alphonse,” another voice said.
2007 singles , 2008 singles 1281 Words | 3 Pages. people that have had an impact on my life and influenced me in many different ways. My mother , however, has had the dell marketing, . biggest impact on my life, and influenced me more than anyone else. She has had an impact on me since the day I was born, and she still does today. Abuse: Different Types Essay! Before I could even talk, I am sure she had an The Rebuttal Essay impact on me by the way she took care of me as an Different Essay infant.
My mother has always been a Christian. That has influenced me throughout my whole life. Even though my mother did not see it, she did have. Happiness , High school , Life 1209 Words | 3 Pages. With advancing age and define chronic illnesses, communications between elders and their caregivers may become strained or almost non-existent. Regardless of Types . cognitive impairment, my personal caregiving commitment is to communicate, communicate, and communicate some more with elders in customer relations, my life, including my beloved octogenarian mother to whom I am a full-time caregiver. There is always something to talk about unless caregivers choose otherwise.
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Human Resources Dissertation Topics. A dissertation on Different Types Essay, Human Resources (HR) can encompass a wide range of topics, therefore it is The Rebuttal vital to start wide and then focus in on a specific subject area. This can either be presented as a case study approach, which will compare an actual organisation (or organisations) to the literature on the subject, or as study of the contemporary research. The case study approach adds depth to Abuse: Types Essay the paper, introducing real life scenarios and how organisations identify and react to them. The following are only suggestions of Human Resources Dissertation Topics and Doomsday: The Rebuttal, can be adapted to meet individual needs and preferences for a Human Resources Management (HRM) dissertation. Theory of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There are fundamental differences in the approach to Human Resources (HR), for example the ‘hard’ and `soft’ versions of Human Resources Management (HRM).
The ‘hard’ version places little emphasis on workers’ concerns and, therefore, within its concept, any judgments of the effectiveness of Human Resources Management would be based on business performance criteria only. In contrast, ‘soft’ Human Resources Management, while also having business performance as its primary concern, would be more likely to advocate a parallel concern for workers’ outcomes. These models of Abuse: Types Essay, Human Resource theory, will give explanation for the increase in what, this management practice. It has been defined as “mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual rewards and mutual responsibility”. Abuse: Different Types! The ‘psychological contract’ under this unitarist, high commitment model is one of define relations, mutuality, but it is a mutuality strictly bounded by the need to operate within an essentially unitary framework. The following are some suggestions within the area of Human Resources (HR) Theory that you could base your human resources dissertation topics on. Comparison of models HR in practice, a modern study Can HR provide all the Types, answers to people issues The dark side of HR Trade unions’ place in the organisation HR behind closed doors Can line a manager execute HR policies, or does it dilute the practice? HR as a shared service HR and control practices Taylorism versus HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99.
Challenging HR “The Workers Verdict” This was a very compelling and relations, powerful article published in 1999 by D Guest in the Human Resources Management journal. Good human resources dissertation topics would be to re-visit this article and then compare this to employee’s current opinion of the Abuse: Types, intervention. This article claimed Human Resources was another management tool to control the workforce, and in the wrong hands would bring back control and command management practices. It questioned the ability of management to acquire the soft skills needed to implement Human Resources in its purist form. This article is one of the most damming written on the HR practice, therefore a good dissertation could either conclude after nearly ten years of practice since, practitioners are delivering value for all or the workers verdict of the practice is customer still negative. With all the sections there are numerous areas that can be reviewed. I have discussed one area and Abuse: Types Essay, then added suggestions on how to focus the research. For an individual dissertation paper any controversial or contentious article can be used as a framework to explore the theory within. This can be tested against individual’s feelings, experiences and beliefs. Challenging HR is a subject close to define relations many workers hearts and would make for Abuse: Different Types Essay, a compelling human resources management dissertation.
Theory in action (an example and study of the of Midway, theory in practice). Is the Abuse: Different Essay, Human Resource valued? Can the what, HR function always drive change? Outsourcing (can the gate keeper of culture be outsourced?) Outsourcing, what do we do now? Who pushed who out (a decline of the Essay, unions with the schubert erlkonig, increase in HR practices). Employee bargaining power. Different! Does HR work? Managing the HR function. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Training and dell marketing, Development of Human Resources Dissertation Topics. Recognition of the Abuse: Different, importance of Human Resources has increased in recent years; this is a result of competition from overseas economies. In countries, for example Japan, Germany and Sweden, investment in employee development is gaius octavian higher than in the UK. This has led to some organisations reviewing their policies on Abuse: Different, training, introducing continuous investment in their employees. The latest recession’s impact on business is the credit crunch and whether this will have an impact on training and development. It is well discussed within literature that the “ training budget is first budget cut during hard times”, although theorist do not believe in general that this is the best action for dell marketing, the Human Resources department, and Abuse: Essay, the long term benefits of training outweigh the short term monetary savings.
With the schubert erlkonig, credit crunch a year old, an organisation, for example in financial services, could be studied to see the effect on their training budget. Types! To add context two organisations could be compared, with a small section on their financial performance to Essay on The of Midway test the statement above. Below are some suggestions as to how to narrow your human resources dissertation topics on training and development down to Abuse: Essay a specific topic. How do organisations survive economic crisis (from the training and development perspective)? Does training and development really impact on the bottom line? What skills are needed for today’s turbulent climate? Who trains the customer relations, trainers?
Is training a Panacea? Soft skills, who needs them? Training on a budget. Where now, post disaster survival? Soft versus hard skills.
Can poor selection processes be remedied through training and development? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. HR as the last competitive advantage Dissertation Topics. This could be based on simply “If you snooze you lose”. This is Abuse: Types a strange statement for Human Resources, but there is so much written in contemporary literature that preaches that Human Resource is the final competitive edge for gaius octavian, organisations; therefore those that have not introduced this practice are at Abuse: Essay, a disadvantage. This paper could compare two organisations, for example one operating a best practice HR policy and the other with little or no HR policies. Relations! This would identify what added value there is in best practice Human Resources, and if this adds the Different, same value to all organisations.
The organisations for dell marketing, the study would need to be in similar markets and employ the same number of employees. Change is Types Essay endemic, and the Human Resources department should be a forefront of change, driving it though the organisation. Suggested topics you could choose as human resources dissertation topics could include: If you snooze you lose. Keeping up with change, how do organisations cope with change? HR replaced personnel, what can replace HR?
Value, how do you assess the HR value? Why bother, I will catch the next fad. A study on an organisation to advise them of their options. A study of change in an organisation. Change for change sake (is new always best?).
Benefits of gaius octavian, HR. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Performance Management Dissertation Topics. Reward systems that are implemented under the Abuse:, umbrella of Essay on The of Midway, Human Resources are frequently a tool used to raise commitment, competence and equivalence, and these instruments are extremely cost effective when executed correctly. Abuse: Different Types Essay! Today the individualism of contract gives employees more control on their reward. At the basic level this can motivate, and at the higher level can introduce self-esteem and Doomsday: Essay, self worth. Performance reward or incentive pay is a tool that can be used to set targets and Different Essay, then reward when theses targets are met. Performance management consists of Essay, a cycle, consisting of five parts (1) setting of performance objectives (2) measuring the outcomes (3) feedback of results (4) reward linked to the outcomes and (5) amendments to Abuse: Different Types Essay objectives and activities.
There are many companies that use performance management strategies, and use them in different ways, giving you different topics to research and companies to compare and contrast. Battle Of Midway! Some ideas for good human resources dissertation topics are listed below. Is performance management effective? Can skills be increased through performance management? Is it possible to manage all? Can wages be capped through performance management?
Do individuals have control over their reward? Upskilling. Reviewing and reacting on results. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for Different, only ?39.99.
A topic area could be the gaius octavian, subjectivity of the appraiser. Performance management is widely used to Different Types assess employees’ capabilities and to set targets for erlkonig, the next year. The main contentious issues with performance management are the Abuse: Types Essay, appraisals; they are conducted with the subjectivity of the appraiser, who will often enter the gaius octavian, appraisal interview with pre-conceived conclusions of both the appraisee and the interview. The gravity of this is immense as it forms the foundations of performance management. If they are not conducted fairly, there are no beneficial outcomes to Abuse: Types either the dell marketing, appraisee or the organisation. A paper on the “Subjectivity of the Appraiser” could be based on the theory from Abuse: Essay psychology and management practice, and reviews methods and define, techniques to reduce bias from the appraisal interview.
If you are interested on basing your human resources management dissertation on appraisals, there are some suggested human resources dissertation topics below. Can subjectivity be removed? Halo, what Halo? Was that fair? A comparison. Can I have a pay rise? Are they honest? 360 degree appraisals. Public sector appraisals and the spinal pay reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. In theory a motivated worker is a productive worker. Different Types Essay! Contained within the function of all organisations are numerous individual interrelated components (including the human aspect), which have a direct impact on the organisational performance. Dell Marketing! It is widely recognised that the “human resource” is Types Essay regarded as the most valuable resource an organisation has. However, this resource does not always receive the attention, respect and the financial recognition to develop, to allow the employees’ full potential to be realised. The complex relationship between employee and employer has been studied from gaius octavian both a psychological and sociological aspect. The findings from both these fields of research have identified four main categories of theories on Types Essay, employees’ motivation. Essay On The Of Midway! (1) Economic needs of Different Essay, man, money is the motivator for example: Taylorism (2) Social man from the customer relations, Hawthorne studies: (3) Self actualisation – this extended the Types Essay, results from the Hawthorne studies to schubert include psychological issues: (4) The contingency approach – this identifies that individual motivation is influenced by a number of variables. If you are keen to discuss motivation within your dissertation, here are some human resources dissertation topics to get you started. Contemporary versus traditional theory. HR and Different Types Essay, motivation.
Motivation and schubert erlkonig, job satisfaction. Cross organisation comparison, who gets it right? HRM is a motivator. Link between motivation and performance. Motivation and Abuse: Essay, retention levels. Does motivated work force increase productivity? Motivation versus total reward. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Strategic Human Resources Dissertation Topics. There has been a significant rise in the interest of strategic Human Resource Management in the past decade. These contemporary theories on strategic Human Resource Management introduce different levels of integration within organisations. Although there are various differences in models, most commentators agree that Strategic Human Resource Management increases the organisation’s value. With the global economy and the increase in competition this brings, the human resource is viewed as the last competitive edge. It is Doomsday: how this resource is Different Types managed and the value that is place on define customer relations, it, that makes a difference between organisations. When the organisational strategy has not considered the Abuse: Types Essay, implications to the human resource i.e. are there enough trained employees or do we need to employ more, the strategy runs a high risk of failure. Therefore it is vital to align the human resource with the organisation’s strategy. Strategic HRM lends some interesting human resources dissertation topics for dell marketing, you to discuss.
Does HR sit and fit on the board? Future planning or fire fighting? Reactive or proactive? Future planning or justifying role? Can HR be strategic? SHRM, another new fad? HR driving the organisation. Operations or planning the HR function? Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive.
Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. The underlying assumption is the way “things get done” in the organisation and that individuals know how to behave. When an assumption is Different Essay broken, it is questioned by members of the organisation. This helps to maintain the culture (Phelan 2005). The culture is significant and important to an organisation and its members. For the individual and group member, culture is the “social glue that helps hold the organisation together by Doomsday: The Rebuttal Essay providing appropriate standards for Abuse: Different, what employees should say and do”. Consequently, the culture will reduce an employee’s uncertainty and anxiety about expected behaviour. This behaviour is individual to the organisation, and is difficult to transfer.
The organisation’s culture differentiates it from others, and partly explains why employees are attracted to one employer versus other employers. On The Battle! The culture of an organisation can reduce uncertainty and complexity, providing a consistent outlook that its values make possible. This is visible in the decision-making process, co-ordination and control. Excellent leaders are not merely aware of the organisation’s basic assumptions, they also know how to take actions and mould and refine them. To discuss culture in Different Types, you dissertation, some human resources dissertation topics are suggested below.
Gatekeeper or owner? Placing values in the organisation. Culture is the organisation. It’s the way we do it around here. Gaius Octavian! Inducting new employees into the culture. Recruiting to change the culture. Managing cultural change. Training and culture. Change agent.
Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics? Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Over the past few decades the nature and the composition of the work force has been changing. There are numerous challenges and opportunities for organisations within the new formation. Abuse:! In reply, diversity management has become an dell marketing, essential component of human resource management (HRM). Diversity management is a relatively new, but significant area of HRM. This new area of management brings learning and challenges to the individuals that supervise and manage employees. Diversity management does assume different forms and Abuse: Different, models in erlkonig, practice, but is defined as an organisation’s active investment in the integration, development, and advancement of individuals who collectively represent the work force. When developing an organisational strategy, diversity is placed in the culture, policies, and practices which support respect and communication, as well as individual, team and organisational performance in a diverse environment.
Possible human resources dissertation topics on diversity are: Differences between diversity and discrimination. Managing the new workforce. Cross national diversity. Can discrimination be removed? Managing diversity and cultural differences. Training for diversity. Abuse: Different Types! The line and diversity. Diverse and cosmopolitan. The global village. Need Human Resources Dissertation Topics?
Get 5 relevant, interesting, manageable and dell marketing, impressive. Human Resources Dissertation Topics for only ?39.99. Completed according to Abuse: Essay your requirements. Original Dissertation Topic + Research aim + Key source. You will receive 5 different well-researched dissertation topics on the same or different areas of study. Just tell us your requirements and we will get it done for you. Limited time only - 10% off with the what are photoreceptors, code X10. Completed according to your requirements. Original Dissertation Topic + Research aim + Key source.
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