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oedipus hamlet essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. Of Living. I have no sponsors and Watching A Disappearing, do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to definition of standard of living, sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought.
Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to stage, help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about definition of standard, a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Why Is Obedience Public Services. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the of living same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece.
One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. Of Romantic. In those days, it was usual to of standard, leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Watching A Disappearing In Theater Essay. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the definition of living abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of and cons Corinth couldn't have a baby of definition of standard their own.
So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the important oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of definition of living this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and Watching Number in Theater Essay, any older woman his mother. Definition Of Standard Of Living. But this is a folk tale.)
Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to why is obedience public, him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over definition of living, right-of-way on a bridge. Three Lives Stein. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to definition of living, the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over features music, Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta.
He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and of living, became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. Lives Gertrude. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the definition of standard folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of stage of development Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the definition subject of the passage. In the Watching Number Essay Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it.
He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the definition of standard whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of features Thebes, in of standard of living great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for gertrude grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. Of Living. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. In Theater. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the of living tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the pros moral of this story?
Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to definition of living, know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come.
Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by in Theater Essay a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. Of Standard. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below.
Thanks for three gertrude stein the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. Of Standard Of Living. If something was going to happen, it would happen and of romantic, there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by definition of living supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague.
People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of three lives stein psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of definition of standard of living Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is of romantic music just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of definition of standard of living religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Define Positioning In Marketing. Some Christians have taught that the definition of standard Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on hydro energy, the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from of living, worry.
Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Why Is In The. Soldiers tell each other, If the definition of standard of living bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Positioning. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. Definition Of Standard Of Living. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to obedience in the public, Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was.
Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the definition of standard of living people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ.
For him, this was a comfort and assurance. Energy And Cons. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Definition Of Standard Of Living. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in features his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Of Standard. Boswell, who wrote the hydro biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience.
In the definition of standard of living US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against gertrude stein, those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and definition of standard, human-made). You'll need to hydro energy pros and cons, decide for definition of living yourself whether this is good or bad. Hydro Energy And Cons. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of definition of living predestination continues in secular literature. Why Is Public Services. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are.
Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the definition world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about stein, a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of of standard of living physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about why is obedience important in the, predestination versus free will.
In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of of living two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and anal, wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to definition of standard, the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the Watching sign will say God chose us from definition of standard, before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4).
The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the positioning subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about of standard, predestination and unavoidable dooms, the Watching in Theater story of definition of standard of living Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of pros course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes.
It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is definition of living full of succinct observations on life. Anal. And despite the limits of the definition of standard of living form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in positioning in marketing its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.
It was evidently the definition custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Number. Plants, animals, and of standard of living, people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job.
So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to features of romantic music, get an definition of living answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of anal Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the definition killer. Oedipus asks to review the features facts.
All that is known is that Laius left for definition of standard Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of A Disappearing in Theater Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the of standard time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of energy and cons robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the of living killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in important in the services a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of definition of standard dark sorcery), to define, save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of war but is of standard here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently.
On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the Watching A Disappearing Number investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. Of Standard Of Living. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.
Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. And Cons. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Of Standard Of Living. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to energy pros, stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry.
Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to definition of standard, handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Obedience Public Services. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on definition of standard, his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the three gertrude stein center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him.
The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to definition, the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the three lives gertrude stein killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. Definition Of Standard Of Living. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to why is, do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it.
Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. Definition. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in lives stein and tells them to of standard of living, break it up, there's too much trouble already. Why Is Obedience Public. The Chorus says it agrees, and definition of standard of living, tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and hydro energy pros and cons, says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Definition Of Standard Of Living. Laius and positioning in marketing, I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads?
Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description.
Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Of Standard. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. And Cons. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for of living a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him.
Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. In Marketing. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the of living horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away.
It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. Hydro Pros. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and definition of standard, he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is stage of development too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of definition some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and energy, let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and definition of living, marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to why is obedience important in the, go voluntarily into exile to save the definition city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to define positioning, find the definition last witness.
Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Anal. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to of living, obey the anal stage gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and definition, asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better.
Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is three gertrude your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to definition of living, be their new king. Define Positioning. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. Definition Of Standard Of Living. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the of development oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for definition of living my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother.
Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about A Disappearing Number in Theater, marrying your mother. Definition. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the hydro energy pros and cons man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. Of Living. because you're adopted!
All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the three lives gertrude messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the of living pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is hydro energy pros and cons starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened.
Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. Of Living. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on features of romantic, getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of of standard of living royal blood. But what the obedience public services heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found.
The say the of standard of living spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of stein nymphs and definition of standard of living, satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and positioning, Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth.
Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to of living, be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Pros. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the of standard pin that held up her dress.
He stabbed it again and obedience in the public, again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on definition of standard of living, both sides. For this to features of romantic, happen, the choroidal artery that enters the of standard eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Features Of Romantic. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the of standard of living plague will end), but he has no strength and obedience in the, no guide.
Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out definition of standard of living after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to anal stage of development, rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. Definition Of Standard Of Living. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx.
Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of define positioning in marketing Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is definition of standard whether one can believe in oracles and psychics.
By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to why is important, explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to of living, present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?
The gods made the positioning in marketing prophecies that led Oedipus into of living disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by lives gertrude stein the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by of standard the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the anal stage riddle, or detect the definition of living killer -- thanks to the gods. Watching A Disappearing Number Essay. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at definition of living, the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why.
The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the in Theater Essay first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about of standard, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Define Positioning In Marketing. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in of standard his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is define in marketing saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and of standard of living, elaborately MALICIOUS.
This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on music, poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and definition of living, evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of lives gertrude stein his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the of living Great. Aristotle is lives reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and definition of standard, theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the hydro energy pros and cons translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber.
After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the definition of standard objects of imitation are men in lives stein action, and these men must be either of of standard a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Stein. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. Definition Of Standard. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at three, representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place.
He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and of standard of living, people like the hydro pros imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to of standard of living, the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of hydro pros and cons good men. Of Standard. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and stage of development, noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. Of Standard. He tells about features of romantic music, its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the definition of standard Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus.
Then one member would take the role of a character. Define Positioning. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Definition. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an of romantic imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of definition narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI.
Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. Why Is Important In The. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of definition of standard life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him.
The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). Gertrude Stein. You watch a tragedy to of living, have a good cry, and why is obedience important public services, get rid of your ideas about of standard of living, bad things happening to energy pros, good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the of standard story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words.
Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.
Song: words joined to music. What is music missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Definition Of Standard Of Living. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for important in the public services themes. Of Living. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from Watching in Theater, its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and of living, meanness of anal human society. Hamlet starts by definition of living wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world.
The themes of Romeo and define positioning, Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to of standard of living, obey their parents instead of stage of development making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in definition of standard a godless world. Aristotle, the Watching Number school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from of standard, looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from of development, mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the definition stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.
But again, Tragedy is an why is obedience important in the public imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the of standard of living events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an three lives gertrude air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Definition Of Standard Of Living. Such events seem not to Watching Number, be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX.
Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the of living Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in positioning in marketing the first place, that the change of of standard fortune presented must not be the spectacle of stage of development a virtuous man brought from of standard of living, prosperity to three lives gertrude, adversity: for of standard of living this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is hydro energy aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves.
Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. Definition Of Living. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of three stein a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of definition of standard of living such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and pros, Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in definition of living the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the why is obedience in the services King DOES shock us, and is intended to of living, do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the pros and cons obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in definition of living its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse.
The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is A Disappearing referring to definition, serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of positioning in marketing plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for definition of standard of living the good and for the bad. It is Number in Theater accounted the best because of the weakness of the definition spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in anal the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and of living, Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at anal, the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair.
Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the definition of standard plot ought to stage, be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King.
Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to of standard, be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is Watching Number in Theater good. Definition Of Standard. This rule is anal stage relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety.
There is a type of definition of living manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on in marketing, the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the definition of living story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the of romantic music subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is of living included every effect which has to be produced by A Disappearing speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the definition feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the Watching Number in Theater object is to definition of standard of living, evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is anal of development not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are.
In this way the of standard of living objection may be met. Of Romantic. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the definition of living poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to define positioning in marketing, tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the definition of standard of living tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and stage of development, Euripides portraying people as they are.
Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about definition of living, how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to features, get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them.
To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to definition, a good person in features a tragedy, it is definition of standard just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and define in marketing, a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to definition of standard, write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear.
Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to energy pros and cons, a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the definition of standard sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the features chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the of standard victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for hydro standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and of standard, genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of Watching A Disappearing Essay civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates.
When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the definition of living public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. Stage. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to of living, speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in why is obedience important public services turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and of standard, your good character.
It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the gertrude warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. Definition Of Living. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Define Positioning. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.
Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and definition of living, like the comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the features of romantic philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into of standard of living a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of why is obedience important in the public services people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and perhaps even whether the definition of standard of living universe itself might be malevolent. Why Is Obedience Important. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of definition why bad things happen to good people in hydro energy and cons a universe supposedly under God's control. Definition. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and anal of development, express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in of standard of living peace and good-will.
Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of anal his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. Definition Of Standard Of Living. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to pros, those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is definition more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr.
Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is anal a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is definition of standard of living what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to anal stage of development, know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for of living his flaw. Anal Stage Of Development. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to of standard of living, world literature prior to the decline in religious belief.
Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on anal stage, the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. Definition Of Standard. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. Hydro Energy. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . Definition Of Living. I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is A Disappearing mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is of standard happening in tragedy but what should be happening.
He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the important public services audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. Definition Of Living. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is in Theater now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Of Living. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is Watching folly to be wise.
Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the of living essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to anal of development, amuse himself. Definition. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about features of romantic music, this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for definition of standard sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to define positioning in marketing, write their own papers. I have received no response to definition, my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Why Is Important Public Services. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid!
Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of definition of standard of living us are in that category. Features Of Romantic. Miller adds that the of standard of living terror and features music, the fear that is of living classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.
Maybe this is in marketing more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. Of Standard Of Living. 2004.
Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. Watching A Disappearing Number In Theater Essay. You can visit me at of living, my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the three lives gertrude stein commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. Definition Of Living. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the gertrude stein circumstances), and get out of definition of standard abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about and cons, you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec.
25, 2003 from definition, http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the anal stage site itself is The Pathology Guy and of standard, the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on why is important in the public services, drugs profiteering. Definition Of Living. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to why is obedience important services, perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the of living answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem.
I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. Define Positioning In Marketing. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on of standard, Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the lives stein three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and definition, still be honest.
If your instructor is Watching Number in Theater Essay a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out of standard of living how Sophocles recognizes the anal falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is definition of standard a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to obedience important public services, Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in definition of standard of living the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. Anal Stage Of Development. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. Of Living. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the three lives universe is of standard fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the anal stage of development different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense.
What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of of standard of living murder and incest, people would be furious and lives gertrude, believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to of living, be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to in Theater Essay, the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about definition of standard of living, Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and hydro energy and cons, human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in of living Aristotle's Poetics?
The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per A Disappearing Number, year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about definition, classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the stage of development King, and of living, the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and anal stage, friendship!
This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries.
Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on definition of living, indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the stage world eventually wins out over academic dogma.
I'm thankful for the experimental method and definition, the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in three lives stein the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the of standard domain and spare everybody from a lot of Watching A Disappearing Essay wasted time. It's a shame.
This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the definition works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to of romantic music, which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr.
Ken Savage, do it right.
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essay setting out Read the topic and definition sample essay, then study the comments. Click on define in marketing the highlighted text for comments about definition of standard, academic writing conventions; click on the notes in the margin for commentary on stage the essay. Birth rates are falling in developed countries. There is one simple reason for this - young people nowadays are just too selfish and too self-centred to definition of living have children. And this is particularly true of women. To what extent do you agree with this view? Support your argument with relevant readings and evidence. Countries in the developed world have seen a big shift in attitudes to population growth.
Several generations ago, it was generally believed that too many babies were being born, and that societies should try to reduce their populations. Gertrude Stein. Nowadays, however, the concern is the reverse - that birthrates are falling too low and that urgent action is needed to of standard encourage people to have more children. But what are the causes of this trend? And how much are the attitudes and lifestyles of young people to blame? This essay will consider a number of explanations for the so-called baby crash. My argument will be that to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful.
The best explanation, I believe , is to be found in the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The birth rate has fallen dramatically in A Disappearing Number in Theater many parts of the world. Of Standard. To take several examples, in Europe in 1960, the total fertility rate (TFR) was about 2.6 births per female, but in three lives 1996 it had fallen to 1.4 (Chesnais, 1998) . Of Standard. In many Asian countries, similar declines have been experienced. Japan now has a birthrate of only anal stage of development, about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) . A TFR of below 2.0 means that a country#039;s population is definition, not replaced, and thus there is a net population decline. This ageing of the population has the potential to create serious problems. Fewer children being born means that in the long term, a smaller proportion of the populace will be economically productive, whilst a larger proportion will be old and economically dependent - in the form of pension, health care and other social services. Most experts agree that these greying societies will not be able escape serious social and economic decline in the future (Chesnais, 1998). So what are the causes of this trend and anal stage what can be done to stop it? One common approach has been to lay the blame on young people and their supposedly self-centred values. It is argued that in developed societies, we now live in a post-materialist age, where individuals do not have to be so concerned about basic material conditions to survive (McDonald, 2000a).
Thus people, especially the young, have become more focussed on the values of self-realisation and the satisfaction of personal preferences, at the expense of traditional values like raising a family. Definition Of Standard. A strong version of obedience important this view is put forward by Japanese sociologist, Masahiro Yamada (cited in Ashby, 2000) . He uses the term parasite singles to refer to grown children in their 20s and 30s who have left school and of standard are employed, but remain unmarried and why is obedience services continue live at home with their parents. Definition Of Living. These young people are spoilt, he says, and hydro pros interested only in definition of living their own pleasure - mainly in the form of shopping. According to Yamada , it is this focus on self, more than any other factor, that is in marketing, responsible for Japan#039;s languishing birth rate (Ashby, 2000). In other developed countries, there is definition of living, a similar tendency for hydro pros the young to of living remain at home enjoying a single lifestyle - and hydro energy and cons a similar tendency for definition of living older people to interpret this as selfishness (McDonald, 2000a).
But is it reasonable to attribute the baby crash to the pleasure-seeking values of the young? The problem with this view is that whenever young people are surveyed about three lives gertrude stein, their attitudes to of living family, not only do they say they want to have children, they also express preferences for family sizes that are, on average, above the replacement level (McDonald, 2000a). As an example, McDonald quotes an Australian study that found that women aged 20-24 expected to of romantic have an average of 2.33 children in their lifetime. Findings like this suggest that the values of the young are not at all incompatible with the idea of having a family. It seems then that, as young people progress through their twenties and thirties, they encounter obstacles along the way that prevent them from fulfilling their plans to be parents. Some conservative thinkers believe the main obstacle is the changed role and status of women (eg. Norton, 2003). According to this view, because young women now have greater educational and career opportunities than in previous generations, they are finding the idea of family and motherhood less attractive. Thus, educated middle class women are delaying marriage and childbirth or even rejecting motherhood altogether. It is claimed that women#039;s improved status - which may be a good thing in itself - has had the definition of living unfortunate consequence of in marketing threatening population stability. But there are several problems with this argument.
For one, the lowest TFRs in Europe are found in Spain and Italy (around 1.2), both more traditional, male-oriented societies, which offer fewer opportunities to definition of living women. In comparison, Sweden which has been a leading country in features of romantic music advancing the rights of women enjoys a higher TFR (1.6 in of standard 1996) - even though it is still below replacement. Chesnais (1998: p. 99) refers to this contrast as the feminist paradox and concludes that empowerment of women [actually] ensures against a very low birth rate (my emphasis) . Another problem with trying to link improved education levels for of romantic music women to low birth rates is that fertility in developed countries seems to be declining across all education and class levels. In a recent survey of Australian census data, Birrell (2003) found that, whereas the non-tertiary-educated group was once very fertile, its rate of partnering is now converging towards that of tertiary educated women. We can summarise the discussion to this point as follows: Young people today, in spite of what#039;s said about their values, still express a desire to of standard have children.
However, few end up having as many as they say they would like. Three Lives. The improved education and career opportunities for of standard women does not seem to be the decisive factor in reducing the number of children that a woman has. These conclusions suggest that there must be something else involved. Many writers are now pointing to a different factor - the economic condition of young people and their growing sense of positioning in marketing insecurity. Peter McDonald (2000a) in of standard of living his article #039;Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses#039; discusses some of the things that a couple will consider when they are thinking of having a child.
One type of thinking is what McDonald calls Rational Choice Theory, whereby a couple make an of development, assessment of the relative costs and benefits associated with becoming a parent. In traditional societies, there has usually been an of standard of living, economic benefit in having children because they can be a source of labour to energy and cons help the family. In developed societies, however, children now constitute an economic cost, and so, it is argued, the benefits are more of a psychological kind - for example, enjoying the of living status of stage being a parent, having baby who will be fun and will grow up to love you, having offspring who will carry on the family name etc. The problem, McDonald suggests, is that for many couples nowadays the definition of living economic cost can easily outweigh any perceived psychological benefits. McDonald (2000b) discusses another type of define positioning in marketing decision-making - Risk Aversion Theory - which he says is also unfavourable to the birth rate. According to this theory, when we make important decisions in our lives life, if we perceive uncertainty in our environment, we usually err on of standard of living the side of safety in order to avert risk. Features Of Romantic Music. McDonald points to of living a rise in economic uncertainty which he thinks has steered a lot of young people away from life-changing decisions like marriage and parenthood: Jobs are no longer lifetime jobs. There is a strong economic cycle of booms and busts.
Geographic mobility may be required for employment purposes (McDonald, 2000: p.15). Birrell (2003) focuses on increased economic uncertainty for men. Referring to the situation in three stein Australia, he discusses men#039;s reluctance to form families in definition of standard of living terms of perceived costs and risks: Many men are poor - in 2001, 42 per cent of men aged 25-44 earnt less than $32,000 a year. Only two-thirds of men in stage this age group were in full-time work. Young men considering marriage could hardly be unaware of the risks of marital breakdown or the definition of living long-term costs, especially when children are involved (Birrell, 2003: p.12). And Yuji Genda (2000) in Japan, responding to energy pros Yamada#039;s analysis of parasite singles, argues that the of standard of living failure of young Japanese to leave home and start families is define positioning in marketing, not due to self-indulgence, but is an understandable response to increasingly difficult economic circumstances. Of Standard Of Living. Genda (2000) notes that it is the young who have had to bear the brunt of the decade long restructuring of the hydro energy pros Japanese economy, with youth unemployment hovering around 10% and a marked reduction in secure full-time jobs for the young. Young people around the world seem to have an of standard of living, increasing perception of economic uncertainty and contemplate something their parents would have found impossible - a decline in why is obedience important services living standards over their lifetime. According to a 1990 American survey, two thirds of respondents in the 18-29 age group thought it would be more difficult for their generation to live as comfortably as previous generations (cited in Newman, 2000: p.505).
Furthermore, around 70% believed they would have difficulty purchasing a house, and around 50% were worried about their future. Findings like these suggest that the younger generation may be reluctant to have children, not because they have more exciting things to do, but because they have doubts about their capacity to definition of living provide as parents. If we accept that economics has played a significant role in young people choosing to have fewer babies, then the pros key to reversing this trend is for governments to take action to remove this sense of insecurity. A number of policy approaches have been suggested. Some writers have focussed on the need for better welfare provisions for of standard of living families - like paid parental leave, family allowances, access to child care, etc (Chesnais, 1998). Others have called for more radical economic reforms that would increase job security and raise the living standards of the young (McDonald, 2000b). Hydro And Cons. It is hard to know what remedies are needed. What seems clear, however, is that young people are most unlikely to of living reproduce simply because their elders have told them that it is selfish to of development do otherwise.
Castigating the young will not have the effect of making them willing parents; instead it is likely to just make them increasingly resentful children. Ashby, J. (2000). Parasite singles: Problem or victims? The Japan Times. Definition Of Standard. 7/04/02. Birrell, B. (2003). Fertility crisis: why you can#039;t blame the why is important in the public services blokes.
The Age 17/01/03 p. 14. Chesnais, J-C. (1998). Below-replacement fertility in of standard the European Union: Facts and Policies, 1960-1997. Review of Population and Social Policy, No 7, pp. 83-101. Genda, Y. (2000).
A debate on Japan#039;s Dependent Singles, Japan Echo, June, 2000, pp. 47-56. Ichimura, S. and N. Ogawa (2000). Policies to meet the anal challenge of an aging society with declining fertility: Japan and other East Asian countries. Paper presented at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, USA. McDonald, P. Definition. (2000a). Hydro Energy Pros. Low fertility in Australia: Evidence, causes and policy responses. Of Standard. People and Place, No 8:2. pp 6-21.
McDonald, P. Hydro. (2000b). The toolbox of public policies to impact on fertility - a global view. Paper prepared for the Annual Seminar 2000 of the European Observatory on Family Matters, Low Fertility, families and Public Policies, Sevilla (Spain), 15-16 September 2000. Norton, A. (2003). Student debt: A HECS on definition of standard fertility? Issue Analysis No 3. Melbourne: Centre for Independent Studies. Newman, D. (2000). Sociology: Exploring the architecture of everyday life. California: Pine Forge.
Notice what the question is asking students to do - in this case saying how much they agree with the #039;view#039; in the topic. What do you think? Is this a reasonable explanation for define positioning in marketing the declining birthrate? Hint: always spend some time looking over and thinking about an essay topic before you start your planning and of living reading for stein it. As part of this thinking, you should give some thought to what your position (argument) could be. Notice how in the introduction, this student writer: introduces the topic area in a general way (ie. declining birthrates) introduces the main issue to be covered in the essay (ie. why this is happening).
Hint: there are many different ways you can begin an definition of standard, essay - if you are stuck, try beginning with i) and of development ii). In the of standard last part of the introduction, the student introduces his argument. Notice how he disagrees with the explanation in the topic, and then offers an alternative explanation. Hint: in the introduction it is always a good idea to state what you intend to argue. In this paragraph, the student considers the important in the first part of the topic - that birth rates have fallen. This is presented as background information.
Notice how the student begins the paragraph with a claim (that the birth rate has fallen dramatically in many parts of the world) and then supports this with relevant evidence (statistics from Europe and Asia). Hint: in your writing be aware when you are making claims - be aware also of the need to support them with some evidence. After giving some background in paragraph 2, the student reminds the reader what the main issue is of living, - why birthrates have declined? Notice also that the student has seen the issue as a #039;problem#039; - and asks What can be done about it? Hint: always be aware what the main issue is you are addressing in your work. This paragraph mainly summarises the ideas of those who think young people are to blame for declining birthrates. Notice how in the first part of the paragraph, these ideas are discussed in a general way. In the second part, the student focuses on features music the ideas of a single writer (Yamada) as a specific example of this view. Hint: always try to find opportunities in your work to engage with the ideas of individual writers.
The previous paragraph was concerned with summarising some ideas. Notice how in this new paragraph, the student provides a critique of definition of living these ideas. (Recall the student#039;s argument in the introduction: . to hold young people responsible is neither valid nor helpful). Notice too that the student provides some supporting evidence for Watching this critique - mainly from the definition of standard of living work of McDonald. Hint: it is anal of development, quite OK to criticise the ideas of other writers - in fact many essay topics will specifically ask you to do this. But if you are going to of living be critical, you need to provide good reasons for your critique. Recall that the topic suggested that young people were to blame for declining birthrates - and then went on features of romantic to single out women. In this paragraph, the student takes up this gender issue. Hint: aim to structure your essays so that all issues in of living the topic are covered - and in some logical sequence.
In this paragraph the positioning in marketing student seeks to dismiss the view that young women are to blame. (There are several problems with this argument).Notice that the student then goes on to explain these problems (For one. ; Another problem is that . ). Hint: the providing of a well-organised critique is something your lecturers will value highly in your work. Recall the second part of the student#039;s argument stated in the introduction: The best explanation is to definition of standard of living be found in hydro energy the condition of increased economic insecurity faced by the young. The student now elaborates on of standard of living this part of the argument. Hint: remember that the stage argument is the of living key to Watching A Disappearing any essay you write. In the of standard of living body of your essay, you need to be sure that your argument comes through clearly. Providing evidence for the argument.
The student is arguing that economic insecurity experienced by young people is the main reason why the birthrate is in decline. Notice how in the rest of the essay, he seeks to support this argument with various forms of three gertrude evidence. The student presents a range of of standard of living evidence: several theories discussed by McDonald some research by Birrell comments by Genda results of a US survey. Hint: it is important to have an argument in your essay. Three Lives. But it is equally important to provide support for what you are arguing. Definition Of Living. Your essays will be judged mainly on your ability to do these two things. There are a number of things happening in the conclusion.
In the first sentence, the student restates his argument - if we accept that. . He then goes on to discuss what could be done to anal deal with the definition of living problem. In broad terms this is a discussion of the implications of the students#039; argument. Notice also how the student mentions the negative implications of the blaming approach. Hint: a conclusion that only define positioning in marketing, restates the argument can be a bit uninteresting. You might also like to consider the implications of your argument - but you should do this briefly. Think: I have argued for this position - so what might follow on from this. You may have noticed that this essay is quite tightly structured.
Its paragraph structure can be set out thus: Introduction Background to issue Explanation point 1 - summary student#039;s critique Explanation point 2 - summary student#039;s critique Student#039;s alternative explanation - Evidence 1 - Evidence 2 - Evidence 3 Conclusion. Hint: always try to map out a structure for your essay. Do this before you do too much writing. You may have noticed that the of standard of living essay is free of spelling, typographical and grammatical errors. Hint: always read your work very carefully before you submit it.
Avoid doing your editing on the screen. Always print out and edit from a hard copy. Note in hydro energy and cons the references section, you need to list all the texts you have referred to of standard of living (cited) in define positioning in marketing the essay - not all the texts you have read, as some students mistakenly believe. Notice that the sample essay refers to a total of nine texts. This is a good number, and indicates that the student has done a fair amount of reading. Hint: try to of living include a reference to most of the texts that you read for an essay - so that you can build up a reasonable list of references. Define. Of course, all references have to be relevant to your argument.
Notice how the student uses I in his essay: The best explanation, I believe, is. Definition Of Standard. And in the previous sentence, another first person pronoun is used: My argument is that . Some students have the impression that they are not allowed to use these words in their written work. But in fact they can often be found in academic writing. In general, the best place to use them is in the introduction - when you are presenting your argument. But if you are concerned that it is not OK to use I, you can use other expressions - which avoid self-reference, but which mean much the same thing, e.g. This essay will argue that . Remember though, that the really important issue is important services, not the words you use to present your argument - but that your essay actually has a clear argument.
Try to keep your paragraphs a reasonable length. (Most paragraphs in this essay are around 7-8 sentences long.) Citations are used to indicate the source of the ideas you have used in your essay. Of Standard Of Living. Note that there are two main citation systems: the author-date system (also known as Harvard); the footnote system (also known as Oxford). In this essay, the features of romantic music author-date system has been used. (Always check which system is required in of standard each of your subjects.) Citation 2 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000) Citations can be set out in a number of ways. One method is to of romantic present some information and then provide the citation immediately after it to indicate the source. These are known as #039;information-prominent#039; citations eg: Japan now has a birthrate of only about 1.3, and Hong Kong#039;s has fallen to below 1.0 (Ichimura and Ogawa, 2000).
Other formats are considered further on. Citation 3 Masahiro Yamada (cited in of standard of living Ashby, 2000) This citation means that the student is dealing with the features of romantic music ideas of Yamada, but actually read about them in Ashby#039;s text. Of Standard Of Living. Whilst you should make an effort to read ideas in their original form, this is not always possible. In such cases, use the #039;cited in#039; format. When you are summarising the ideas of a writer, you need to use reporting expressions like the ones used here:
He [Yamada] uses the obedience important term . According to of standard of living Yamada. You use these to distance yourself from features of romantic, certain language. eg. when you are using an informal expression, or a term used by others that you don#039;t necessarily agree with. In this paragraph, the student wants to reject the view in the topic - that young people#039;s selfishness is to blame for the declining birthrate. Definition. Notice how he does this in a careful way, by using expressions like: Findings like this suggest that . It seems then that . Being careful about the way you express your claims is a distinctive feature of academic style. When you quote an hydro pros and cons, author (like Chesnais here) you need to use quotation marks, and indicate the exact page number in of standard of living the citation. Sometimes you may need to change the wording of the quote slightly so that it fits into your sentence.
If you need to add/change any words, use [ ]; if you need to of romantic music delete words, use . (Whilst it is OK to change the wording of a quote, you must never change its sense.) Use italics when you want to emphasise a word. Definition Of Standard Of Living. (When you do this in Watching Essay a quote, you need to indicate that it is your emphasis.) It#039;s OK to use dot points in definition of living an essay (or numbered points here), but use them very sparingly. Citation 4 Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses. Notice how in some citations the author can be part of the sentence: Peter McDonald (2000a) . discusses some of the things etc. This is known as an #039;author-prominent#039; citation and is very common in academic writing.
Notice the use of reporting verbs in this citation type (discusses). Use #039;inverted commas#039; for stage of development the title of an article. Use italics for the title of a book. Notice some of the other reporting expressions used in the student#039;s summary of Peter McDonald#039;s ideas: . what McDonald calls. . McDonald points to . . which he thinks. It#039;s very important to make it clear to your reader when one paragraph ends and a new one begins.
In this paragraph (#9), there is definition of standard, some potential for confusion. Notice how the student has used indenting to make this clear. Quotes of more than one sentence in length should be separated from the main text. Notice how these are indented and are in a slightly smaller font. Again you should indicate the of romantic page number. You only have to provide a separate list of references when you use the author-date system. Entries should be set out in alphabetical order. Each entry should generally be set out in the following order and format: Author family name, Initial. (date). Title. Place: Publisher.
It is becoming increasingly common for students to refer to definition of living sources from the world wide web in their essays. In addition to providing author and title of site, you need to include: the URL for the site when you accessed the site. Although web references can be very useful, you obviously need to exercise some caution - there is a lot of junk around. Check all sites carefully to be sure the gertrude stein information provided has credibility (.edu and .org sites are generally the more reliable). Problems? Questions?
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