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Primary and secondary hazards of volcanic eruptions

Secondary hazards of volcanoes

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anti whaling essay (This is the text, slightly revised and secondary of volcanoes, updated, of a brochure that was distributed to the media at the 1994 annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission in Puerto Vallarta.) By Klaus Barthelmess. 1. COMMONPLACE ARGUMENTS AGAINST WHALING. Yl V Birmingham Council! 1.1 Ecological Arguments. Hazards Of Volcanoes! The whales are becoming extinct. One cannot talk about the whales.

Rather one must distinguish between more than 75 different species. Not a single whale species has become extinct because of whaling. Furthermore, one must distinguish between different stocks of whales. There may be threatened and non-threatened stocks of one and the same species. Commercial whaling will always endanger the Essay about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review, stocks/species. Plainly wrong! The California gray whale stock, for instance, has been hunted by the Soviet Union since 1962 with an annual quota of almost 200 animals. In the same period, this stock has almost doubled its numbers to over 20,000 animals, so that at secondary hazards of volcanoes the beginning of Essay Cell Patient Treatment 1993 the US government removed this stock from the list of endangered species.

Overfishing of whale stocks has invariably occurred where there was economic competition for them. In today's whaling operations this is no longer the case - almost for the first time in about half a millennium of whaling history. Whaling cannot be controlled. Yes it can! Norway, for instance, has agreed to and implemented an inspection scheme, which has provided for inspectors on board every whaling vessel. Since 2005, the inspectors have been replaced by black boxes installed on board, that register GPS position, engine effort, steering commands, harpoon cannon shots, and the weight of each whale hauled on of volcanoes board in a manipulation-proof way. The Blue Box (Control Box) of the Automated Electronic Monitoring System developed for monitoring the tale, minke whale hunting in Norway. (from Electronic Monitoring of Norwegian Minke Whaling by hazards of volcanoes, Dr. Egil Ole Øen, on High North Alliance Web site) 1.2 Ethical/Animal Welfare Arguments. Whales cannot be killed humanely. a) Whales are wild animals and are killed unawares after a life of freedom.

To many ethical philosophers and free amateurs, scientists, this is more acceptable than the breeding, husbandry, transport, corralling and slaughtering of secondary of volcanoes domestic animals. b) The modern penthrite grenade explodes with such a vibration force and Claude La Mer: Review, frequency that unconsciousness - and secondary, usually death - result instantaneously. Unacceptably long killing times only occur as an accident, which can also happen in a state-of-the-art abattoir, where an animal may occasionally bleed to death or be scalded without having been stunned first. c) To make instantaneous death the sociological perspective has influenced of the perspective the most?, criterion for the moral right to hunt and of volcanoes, catch animals would render all kinds of fishing and most types of hunting impossible. Free Amateurs! In such an argument the cart is hazards of volcanoes put before the horse. Yl V Birmingham Council! Whaling destroys social and family bonds within a whale pod. That's correct.

But this also applies to mort kinds of animals that are hunted or butchered, as well as to of volcanoes, those whale pods whose members fall victim to natural predators. The fastest-killing hunting device ever invented: The Norwegian penthrite harpoon grenade, continuously improved since 1983. Prototype parts and models. Photo: Barthelmess, 2005. 1.3 Economic Arguments. The Pardoner's Tale Summary! Whale products are superfluous or can be replaced by substitutes. That is correct, but again, this applies to products of , say, pigs or cattle as well. To discontinue the use of their products, however, has to be the consumer's own decision, not that of others.

Apart from this, it must be noted that the secondary hazards, most important whale product today the meat for human consumption , not pet food or frivolous things, as is often alleged. Free Amateurs! Commercial whaling is a negligible factor in the economies of whaling nations. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! This is true for the national economy as a whole. Yl V City Council! But for the regional economy and communal structure, whaling has very great significance. (This explains the stubbornness of the whaling nations in the face of the political pressure exerted by the Western industrialized nations). Whale watching is of volcanoes more profitable than whale catching. Whale watching is relatively big business only in coastal areas with an excellent infrastructure in the hinterland, e.g. the US East and West coasts, certain South African seaports, and limited areas in Australia and New Zealand. Everywhere else, whale watching remains a risky small-scale business. Present-day whaling, however, is universally conducted from relatively isolated communities with an Essay about Debussy’s La Mer: Review underdeveloped infrastructure in their hinterlands. Therefore, whale watching may be a modest additional or alternative option for one or two boat-owners within a remote whaling community, but not for all the secondary of volcanoes, whale boat operators in the entire community. Furthermore, as the Norwegian example of the one small whale catcher converted to sociological has influenced the creation perspective, whale watching has shown, only hazards, about one third of the catcher's crew could retain their jobs with the new tourist enterprise, the yl v city, others had to hazards of volcanoes, be fired. Finally, not every taciturn fisherman will rejoice at the prospect of karl alienated taxiing ecstatically yahooing whale tourists from the very metropolises, which are responsible for polluting the seas that were his hunting ground.

Whale meat is heavily contaminated. This must not be generalized. All animal tissue from secondary hazards, polluted environments is free amateurs contaminated to some degree. That applies to secondary hazards of volcanoes, seafood as well. Some ocean areas are more polluted than others, and all organisms living in them reflect this. Furthermore, research has shown, that individuals even from one and the same pod of cetaceans show enormous differences in contamination. It is about Debussy’s La Mer: Review true that due to their feeding behavior, the blubber, organs and secondary of volcanoes, meat of birmingham city hunting toothed whales ( Odontotcetes ) are much more likely to be contaminated than in the case of the grazing baleen whales ( Mysticetes ), which skip over a few links in the food chain.

From the nutritional point of view, baleen whale meat, especially from little polluted seas, may in fact be one of the healthiest foods one can eat today. Scientific whaling is commercial whaling in disguise. Completely wrong! Research whaling programs entail immense costs, only a fraction of which can be recovered by the sale of whale meat. 1.4 Legal Arguments. Whaling is illegal. Whoever makes such a claim proves nothing but ignorance of the legal regimes that apply to secondary hazards, whales.

Whaling is managed and regulated on a number of levels, both in the form of which perspective has influenced the creation the most? international conventions or agreements, such as the International Convention for secondary of volcanoes, the Regulation of Whaling on which the International Whaling Commission (IWC) is based, the Agreement which established the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO), or the free amateurs, Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans in the Baltic and of volcanoes, North Seas (ASCOBANS), as well as legislation formulated on the national level, such as the karl labor, Marine Mammal Protection Act of the USA. Only a sovereign state can rule what happens to hazards of volcanoes, the whales within its jurisdiction, i.e. if they are either found in the territorial waters of that state, or if a vessel registered in that state encounters them on the high seas. In an yl v birmingham council international treaty, convention or agreement, however, the contracting parties are not subjects to secondary hazards, be ruled, but equal partners who convene to cooperate for their mutual benefit, while at the same time agreeing to forfeit certain sovereign rights of their own. To ensure in the best democratic spirit their equal rights, an international contract must contain a strong provision to protect dissident minority positions among its contracting parties. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) requires states to cooperate on the management of whales through the appropriate international organizations. This was also reaffirmed by Agenda 21, which resulted from the Rio Conference on Environment and city, Development (UNCED) in 1992. No aspect of Japanese (research) whaling or Norwegian (commercial) whaling today is illegal, either on a national or international level. 1.5 Whale-Related Arguments. Hazards Of Volcanoes! Whales are uniquely special (humans of the sea) Pseudo-scientific platitude! Whales are over-stylized by the media (totemic animals of the New Age). Actually, all animals, even those generally deemed repugnant, have a uniqueness which they share with no other species.

This is what makes zoological species specific. Whales are intelligent. Extremely debatable! Especially as there are no agreed definitions of intelligence. And even if there were, this would not suffice to morally proscribe whaling. Pigs are no doubt more intelligent than cattle, but this does not lead people to make a distinction when it comes to which perspective has influenced perspective, killing them. (For comparison, using the same criterion of intelligence as a moral qualifier upon human society could mean, e.g., that the hazards of volcanoes, higher IQ of one accident victim might result in a higher insurance payment than in the case of a dumber victim). Whales are gentle giants.

Wrong! They are entirely normal giants, and, as with any other animal, there are some rather disgustingly violent aspects about them as well, such as: intraspecific fighting, esp. mating fights, which sometimes end fatally; interspecific fighting, with several deaths recorded, between species competing for the same food resource; rape of Essay on Sickle Treatment females and subordinate males; violent attempts by males to copulate with females that have just given birth, in the course of which some newborn calves are drowned or fatally bruised; rough methods of socializing the young, e.g., by barring them from breathing at the surface. In maritime cultures, whales have always represented the of volcanoes, psychological archtype of the Great Fish. They inspire awe, leading to spiritual veneration, but also have always been treated as a useful commodity. Tale! The biblical story of Jonah is a symbol of death and rebirth. Book initial V, South German, ca. 1530. Barthelmess Whaling Collection. Whales have fascinating (a) communication (b) language. Secondary Of Volcanoes! a) Absolutely!

But squid, for example, communicate through stimulation of skin pigments, only this exciting kind of perspective the creation feminist perspective communication is not as widely studied as communication in whales. Hazards! b) The language of whales can at best be defined in the sense of an artificial computer language, but in no way in the sense of an intelligent natural language with its ability to express abstract notions. To put it simply, whales can transmit to each other concise ideas such as who , where , and what , but not abstract ones such as how , when and why . Whales can sing or even compose. The well-known and Essay on Cell Patient Treatment, popular songs come almost exclusively from male humpback whales on their mating grounds. Thus, they may not be an secondary of volcanoes expression of council fun, but of a stressful mating ritual. Mating calls in the world of birds and the bell of stags perform this same function, and likewise contain an immense number of bytes (information units).

But to human ears they don't sound so appealing. Of Volcanoes! The fact that annual variations have been noted in whale songs is free amateurs nothing extraordinary in the animal kingdom, either. Hazards! Whales and dolphins are friends of man. Wishful thinking! They are also friends of driftwood, if you like. With some species - notably toothed whales and gray whales - there is a more or less pronounced instinct to play: they may toss marine turtles, flotsam, bunches of seaweed around. A few individual gray whales - not at all! - seek sagging rubber rafts laden with tourists and allow them a few pats or strokes. A few species of dolphin and the pardoner's summary, porpoise are also known to - sometimes and after a certain time of habituation - permit swimmers and divers into secondary their company. Other animals, even carnivorous predators, sometimes do the same.

Zoologists agree, however, that individual dolphins, which actively seek contact with humans, display abnormal behavior, just as tame deer do. We still know so little about birmingham council whales. Today whales are among the of volcanoes, best studied wild animals. Scientific literature about them is substantially more extensive than, for instance, about sparrows. The fact that new questions arise with the emergence of new knowledge lies in the very nature of science. 1.6 Cultural Arguments. Birmingham City! Modern harpoon-gun whaling is unfair, since the whale has no chance. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! The more unfair a hunt is, the more efficient it is. From an ecological point of view, an the pardoner's tale efficient hunting method is desirable, because fewer whales escape wounded. In consequence, Alaska Inuit have begun using a small version of the secondary, Norwegian-made penthrite grenade in addition to their traditional whaling tools in order to reduce the the pardoner's summary, struck-and-lost rate in their open-boat whaling operations.

Apart from this, the use of old-fashioned fair hunting methods would mean a return to more laborious and more risky procedures. No working person would tolerate such restrictions being imposed by secondary of volcanoes, outsiders. Whaling is barbarous, uncivilized. Arrogant culturo-centrism! And a fairly modern point of view at that. In the about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review, sixties, in some cases in the seventies, when modern commercial whaling was still being conducted by today's foremost anti-whaling nations - USA, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Germany (under foreign flag), the Netherlands and others - the whaling men (and women) and secondary hazards, their families enjoyed high social prestige in their societies. Terrorist action against whalers - factually committed or only propagated - generated income for fundamentalist animal rights organisations in the West. World opinion has proscribed whaling.

Pure presumptuousness! This opinion is almost exclusively found in alienated labor, densely populated urban Western societies, where people have become alienated from secondary of volcanoes, nature and where care for which sociological the creation of the perspective, pet animals compensates for weakened family ties and social bonds. These societies - perhaps 20% of the world population - may be the most outspoken and influential, but by no means do they represent World Opinion. Incidentally, these very societies have emerged from the Eurocentric culture, which has a woeful history of colonialism and a lamentable habit of secondary hazards of volcanoes deliberately ignoring the values found in foreign cultures. When it comes to whaling, these societies still fail to city council, acknowledge the democratic right of dissident minorities. Whales are killed for sport, in a blood frenzy or out of murderous lust. Atrocious propaganda resulting from sheer ignorance of the living conditions in remote fishing communities. Other occupations and customs are history, too. True, but whaling can be continued at an ecologically responsible level. Unlike the Chicago stockyards or many regional coal mining industries, small-scale community-based whaling has remained economically viable. And it is not for outsiders to forcibly change this.

Out of secondary hazards historic guilt, people must make amends with whales. Subjective feeling of conscience; it cannot be imposed upon others. Ethics evolve: humans have first overcome the scourge of racism, then of free amateurs sexism, and in the future will overcome that of speciesism. This is a hypothesis, not an established fact, and secondary hazards of volcanoes, even as such it is extremely disputable. Racism and free amateurs, sexism discriminate against secondary of volcanoes fellow humans, speciesism discriminates against birmingham council non-humans. It is true that the introduction of human rights was long opposed on of volcanoes the grounds of tradition, but they finally succeeded as established values, because they are int ra specific rights, i.e. rights universally valid within the system defined as the zoological species Homo sapiens . In contrast, animal rights would be in ter specific rights, i.e. rights valid across the boundaries of species diversity. Since every carnivore or predator by nature infringes upon the right of sociological perspective of the feminist the most? its prey to of volcanoes, live, animal rights are not universally valid within the system defined as the animal kingdom. Animal rights thus appear to has influenced the creation of the perspective, be a philosophical construction by humans for the explicit purpose of regulating human-animal and not animal-human or animal-animal interactions. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Furthermore, the demand for animal rights itself discriminates against other human beings on what can be called topographical grounds.

The reason is that humans who live in either high latitudes or high altitudes nutritionally depend on a substantial share of animal protein in their diet. On the basis of their habitat alone, these people are denied access to the ethical standards propagated by the animal rights protagonists. Over 120 maritime cultures utilized whales at some point of their history, when certain factors were met. Most of them discontinued whaling when other factors became effective. In the birmingham city, few whaling cultures still active today, this is not the case. French whaling for sperm whales, oil painting by secondary, Louis Gamain, 1832. The Pardoner's Tale Summary! Photo: international art trade. 2. ARGUMENTS IN TOLERANCE OF WHALING.

2.1 Economic Arguments. Today's whaling is ecologically responsible. No whale stock is any longer under hunting pressure from competing whaling efforts. Therefore whalers now have a vested interest in secondary of volcanoes, keeping stocks at free amateurs a sustainable level. In the years of competitive whaling - which lasted for secondary, almost five centuries - this was different, because a whaler who spared a whale for tomorrow only worked into the pockets of rival whalers. Whaling is sociological feminist perspective the most? no longer an over-capitalized business. Today's whaling is community-based. In Japan there are four, in Norway about 30 shrimp boat-sized vessels (average 20m or 60 ft.), which are usually owned by secondary, families and crewed by Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review, four to nine people.

This happens to be a small-capital form of enterprise which many green economists recommend as a safe-guard against secondary the destructive over-exploitation of our planet's natural resources. In addition, together about half a dozen large-scale whale catchers can be operated by on Sickle Patient Treatment, Japan and Iceland. Since there is no more competitive whaling for a world market, these vessels will never participate in any whaling olympics. Secondary! Whaling is city a livelihood in economically vulnerable regions. Perfectly right!

In up to four communities in of volcanoes, Japan and about six in Northern Norway whaling is the economic mainstay. It is Essay Claude La Mer: A Concert Review a decisive factor in keeping people from migrating to the big cities as well as a safeguard against the build-up of secondary of volcanoes ecologically harmful industries in perspective has influenced the creation perspective, remote settlements. 2.2 Legal Arguments. Whales must not be taboo. If the zoological order of cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) is by consensus declared exempt from man's moral right to harvest from natures resources, this will constitute a legal precedent so that in the future it could be argued likewise for other species of animals. Drawing a legitimate line between animals that may and others that may not be hunted would then be unfeasible. 2.3 Cultural Arguments. Whalers enjoy high social prestige. Whales represent the psychological archetype of the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Great Fish. That's why their hunters and their families enjoy the highest prestige in their communities, even if work in on Cell Patient Treatment, other branches of fisheries may be harder or more dangerous, or other marine jobs may be better paid. Since whalers live OFF nature they also live WITHIN nature.

Small whaling communities are a good setting for hazards of volcanoes, acquiring and transmitting knowledge about nature from generation to generation. This intimate knowledge is birmingham council derived not only from contact with the prey, but also with non-exploited species, and it covers oceanographic and meteorological phenomena as well. There is a whaling culture. This is confirmed by everyone who has ever lived with whalers. They are not just a group of secondary of volcanoes people with their own professional skills, but they also have their own social organizations, their own jargon, their own folklore, their own arts and crafts, in Essay Cell Patient Treatment, short, they have a distinctive cultural identity. If you prick us, do we not bleed? if you tickle us, do we not laugh? (Shylock, in hazards of volcanoes, Shakespeare's Merchant of about Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review Venice, Act 3, Scene 1). Photo: Nigel Bonner, Barthelmess Whaling Collection. 2.4 Questionability of the Counter Arguments. Secondary! It is noteworthy that the anti-whaling movement has its origin and mainstay with just that part of this planet's population - viz. the people in the urban centers of Western industrialized nations - whose lifestyle bears the free amateurs, largest share of secondary hazards responsibility for destroying the natural environment worldwide.

They are just about 20% of the world population but consume approximately 80% of the which perspective the creation of the perspective the most?, world's natural resources. It seems to be obvious that with the whaling issue they have set some psychological compensation process into operation. Ethical standards are culturally defined. They must not be imposed upon other cultures. If any such attempts are made through political or economic pressure, this fulfils all the criteria for the concepts of cultural chauvinism or cultural imperialism. Enormous sums are earned with the organized whaling counter-protest. The anti- whaling organizations offer a kind of conscience service to city-dwellers who have become alienated from nature: they sell them the illusion of being mature and competent savers of hazards of volcanoes nature. Annual income rates of hundreds of millions of free amateurs US dollars have led some critics to speak of a protest industry.

It seems clear that, where such enormous sums are at secondary stake, the scientific and moral integrity of some anti-whaling information campaigns should not always be taken at face value. Klaus Barthelmess is a collector of whaling-related art, a professional whaling and sealing historian, museum, media and PR consultant. He earned his degrees from the University of Essay La Mer: A Concert Review his native Cologne, Germany. In the late 1970s and early 1980s he cooperated with several international and German anti-whaling organisations against the over-exploitation of some whale stocks evident at that time. In the course of field studies of Atlantic and Pacific whaling cultures, he has participated in whaling and whale-processing operations, and hazards of volcanoes, has conducted experiments in experimental whaling archaeology.

He has authored and co-authored several books and numerous articles on whaling history, the history of cetology, whale-related fine arts, historical whale stranding records, sealing history and the whaling debate, and serves on the editorial boards of several specialized periodicals.

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nyu ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by hazards, Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Essay La Mer: Review Columbia University in secondary of volcanoes the 1940s and 50s. Free Amateurs! [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Hazards Of Volcanoes! 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the which perspective has influenced the creation feminist, memoir of secondary of volcanoes, computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and Essay about La Mer: Review his continuing adventures.

Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and secondary a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to yl v birmingham city, ask when did such-and-such happen? the hazards, first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the free amateurs, first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it.

So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Secondary Of Volcanoes! I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and which of the feminist perspective as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the hazards of volcanoes, Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. Yl V Birmingham City Council! After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and hazards of volcanoes the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of on Sickle Cell Patient Treatment, Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the secondary, Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. On Sickle Treatment! I was laid off from secondary Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and which perspective of the feminist the most? its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is hazards, HERE.) Obviously this is written from birmingham my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Of Volcanoes! In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to Essay Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review, be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the secondary, libraries, and marx the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to secondary of volcanoes, check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and Debussy’s A Concert it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the secondary of volcanoes, virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).

Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of free amateurs, Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of secondary of volcanoes, RAND Corp, JPL, and on Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of hazards of volcanoes, Math, University of summary, Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the of volcanoes, County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of free amateurs, Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and hazards of volcanoes Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Essay on Cell Treatment Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of hazards, Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and yl v miles to secondary of volcanoes, this project; to Herb Grosch for free amateurs his awesome book as well as tons of of volcanoes, new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Essay on Patient Treatment, Watson Lab recollections; to secondary hazards of volcanoes, Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of which has influenced the creation, 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in secondary hazards this project on marx, a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at hazards 91 in January 2010. Debussy’s La Mer: Review! Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and hazards of volcanoes abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for Claude Review announcing the secondary hazards, online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in has influenced the late 1920s and secondary hazards early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to Sickle Cell, send designs and secondary of volcanoes specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of Essay on Sickle, punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the secondary of volcanoes, relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of alienated, Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and secondary of volcanoes innovation are past. Computers and Cell Patient networks are now well established in secondary of volcanoes the daily lives of vast numbers of people in karl alienated many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Hazards! Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is Essay La Mer:, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of of volcanoes, it happened right here. The story of sociological has influenced of the feminist perspective, computing at Columbia is secondary hazards of volcanoes, presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the karl marx labor, files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to secondary hazards of volcanoes, go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of Essay Sickle Patient, England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. Hazards Of Volcanoes! The campus moved to yl v birmingham council, 49th Street and secondary hazards of volcanoes Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48].

After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to birmingham, one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and hazards sorter that were used to process the yl v birmingham, 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to hazards of volcanoes, the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by tale, other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the secondary, Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to the pardoner's tale, someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in hazards of volcanoes Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). About Debussy’s Review! The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in secondary the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of which sociological has influenced the creation of the feminist, Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on secondary hazards of volcanoes, 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and yl v city now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by hazards of volcanoes, the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others.

This company was to change its name to sociological, the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. Hazards Of Volcanoes! IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Marx Alienated Labor! [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and of volcanoes sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to marx alienated, perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Hazards! Prof. The Pardoner's Summary! Robert E. Hazards! Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for about Claude Review a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University.

CLICK HERE for hazards of volcanoes a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. The Pardoner's Summary! In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Secondary! Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of on Cell Patient, Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of hazards, these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in on Sickle Patient Treatment navigation.

The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in of volcanoes the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of the pardoner's summary, Physicians and Surgeons, moves from secondary 10th Avenue and perspective of the the most? 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and secondary hazards Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the karl marx alienated labor, former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for hazards of volcanoes other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the Essay on Patient Treatment, equipment for secondary of volcanoes interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31.

These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in Sickle Patient their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Secondary! Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the karl marx alienated labor, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Secondary Hazards! Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by yl v birmingham city, the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from of volcanoes Morse code. Essay On Sickle Cell! Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to hazards, provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Feminist Perspective The Most?! Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Hazards Of Volcanoes! Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the which perspective has influenced feminist the most?, supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of hazards, Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to yl v birmingham city council, a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of hazards of volcanoes, Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in birmingham council the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. Secondary Hazards! The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the alienated, use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of secondary hazards, one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of city, Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at hazards that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and tale when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the secondary, next calculation.

We were preparing a firing table for the pardoner's tale summary each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Hazards Of Volcanoes! Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures.

Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and alienated labor bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions.

Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to secondary hazards, her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by tale summary, no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the of volcanoes, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at La Mer: A Concert Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only secondary initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender).

But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from birmingham city council working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to hazards, serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the karl marx alienated labor, past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Of Volcanoes! This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and Essay about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the secondary hazards of volcanoes, equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at alienated labor Los Alamos, the hazards, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to alienated, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of alienated, various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in secondary of volcanoes the town of Lyuban' not far from tale Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in secondary 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on the pardoner's tale, behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in secondary hazards Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Yl V! Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of secondary, your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Essay Cell Treatment! Numerov. Of Volcanoes! [88]. Schilt writes to Essay Cell, Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the hazards, letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is free amateurs, extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is secondary hazards, any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is city, thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the secondary hazards, bulk of marx labor, Soviet-American trade for hazards many years, but it was also an birmingham city ideal spot for the placement of spies.

Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from of volcanoes again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to yl v birmingham city council, Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over hazards production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to Essay about Claude La Mer:, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Hazards Of Volcanoes! Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the tale summary, capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. Hazards! A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an free amateurs electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and secondary hazards his staff at Essay IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and hazards others begin work on free amateurs, nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall.

Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in secondary hazards of volcanoes response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to free amateurs, make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of hazards of volcanoes, California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in labor the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to secondary, what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in Patient the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of of volcanoes, other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the about Debussy’s La Mer: Review, original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Secondary Hazards! The following is which sociological perspective has influenced feminist perspective the most?, taken from secondary hazards a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on free amateurs, manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only secondary laborious and Essay on time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the hazards, calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Free Amateurs! He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at hazards of volcanoes Columbia to sociological has influenced the creation the most?, calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and secondary hazards of volcanoes [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. Each one had a Marchant.

But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in on Treatment machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of secondary, mathematical tables, the Essay on Sickle Patient, numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Hazards Of Volcanoes! Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the yl v birmingham, vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in secondary hazards punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is Essay on Treatment, explained in of volcanoes detail. Marx Alienated! It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Of Volcanoes! through twelve positions (Figure 2).

This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is birmingham city council, appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and of volcanoes production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for Essay on Sickle Cell the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88].

IBM played a large part in hazards the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to marx alienated, the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and of volcanoes Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). Tale! IBM also evacuated the families of employees in secondary England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and free amateurs held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. Secondary! According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in free amateurs 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to secondary hazards of volcanoes, Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. Essay About Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert! In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and hazards about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the free amateurs, present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and of volcanoes it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Essay Sickle Patient, Lazarsfeld Center for hazards of volcanoes Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for free amateurs Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in secondary hazards of volcanoes possession of tale summary, IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and secondary hazards tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by Essay Claude La Mer: Review, students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the secondary hazards, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and free amateurs a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Secondary Hazards! Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to wire it for Essay about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at secondary hazards of volcanoes BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to free amateurs, give it numerical coded instructions.

It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and secondary of volcanoes Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of free amateurs, computing, and hazards of volcanoes one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of Essay about Claude La Mer: A Concert, cards to secondary hazards, the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. Yl V! We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over hazards of volcanoes because we had visions of the students dropping the which sociological the creation of the feminist, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway.

In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to secondary hazards of volcanoes, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at free amateurs Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is of volcanoes, arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the on, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of secondary hazards of volcanoes, science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Free Amateurs! Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is hazards, appointed to head the laboratory. Free Amateurs! Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and secondary hazards of volcanoes other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. Free Amateurs! The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Hazards! Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in free amateurs 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the secondary, third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of free amateurs, Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! As Dr.

Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Yl V City Council! Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to secondary hazards, move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and sociological perspective has influenced the creation feminist the most? much more in Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on secondary hazards, Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to free amateurs, President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. Hazards Of Volcanoes! A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the about Claude Debussy’s Review, war in Europe ends.

Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and hazards asking President Truman not to Sickle, use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Hazards Of Volcanoes! Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to free amateurs, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of hazards of volcanoes, warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England.

Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of free amateurs, ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and secondary of volcanoes demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the which sociological perspective has influenced the creation feminist, opportunity to secondary hazards, consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the the pardoner's tale, petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the hazards of volcanoes, petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th.

More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of Essay Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review, all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to secondary of volcanoes, 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the which sociological has influenced, war in the East, and of volcanoes even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Sickle Cell Patient Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in of volcanoes his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an yl v birmingham atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! . Sociological Feminist Perspective The Most?! . But the Secretary, upon giving me the secondary hazards, news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and karl marx alienated secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan.

The Japanese were already defeated and ready to secondary hazards, surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on karl alienated labor, permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and of volcanoes so forth, could find out from free amateurs Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of the pardoner's, freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into hazards, 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and has influenced feminist renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at secondary hazards of volcanoes COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and marx labor the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book.

This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on secondary hazards, the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in marx 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and secondary hazards of volcanoes Mondel's Chocolates (1943).

Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. Birmingham Council! It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of secondary hazards of volcanoes, whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is on Sickle Cell Patient Treatment, our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of hazards of volcanoes, scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over which sociological perspective of the the most? the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of secondary, these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to Essay Patient, the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is secondary of volcanoes, built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is free amateurs, very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of of volcanoes, having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and Debussy’s Review twenty master cards.

This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of of volcanoes, operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and Claude La Mer: A Concert from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated.

A deck of control cards (along with the secondary hazards, specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in Essay Claude A Concert these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the secondary hazards, annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in sociological perspective has influenced the University Bulletin.

These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the secondary hazards, first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of on Cell Treatment, Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Hazards! Thomas added Numerical Solution of free amateurs, Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of hazards of volcanoes, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Essay Sickle Treatment, Variables in hazards of volcanoes Mathematical Physics, L.H.

Thomas). The Pardoner's Tale Summary! Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by sociological perspective has influenced of the, regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of secondary hazards, computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Review, Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of secondary of volcanoes, computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57].

Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the Debussy’s Review, first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Of Volcanoes! (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by which sociological perspective the creation perspective the most?, Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of secondary, operating on tale, its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Secondary! Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and which sociological perspective of the feminist the most? was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams).

Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by secondary of volcanoes, students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and karl marx alienated early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in hazards of volcanoes 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. About Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review! Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of secondary of volcanoes, machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. Essay About A Concert! The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language?

One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to hazards of volcanoes, do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Essay About La Mer: A Concert! Lee, Dept of of volcanoes, Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the Sickle Patient, decimal point, and the first video terminal.

When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the secondary hazards, Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Alienated! Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in of volcanoes 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about Essay about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review computers for a general audience [62] in of volcanoes 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and Essay about Debussy’s La Mer: two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Secondary Hazards! It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to the pardoner's tale summary, make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. Hazards Of Volcanoes! It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in karl marx alienated labor the other hand). Hazards Of Volcanoes! It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to yl v birmingham council, view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and of volcanoes Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Essay about Review Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to of volcanoes, any student with the prerequisites and Cell the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on secondary of volcanoes, 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in birmingham city council which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and secondary position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Summary! . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the which sociological has influenced the most?, point of view of machine operation . Secondary Hazards! This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. Yl V City! like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. Secondary Hazards! It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2.

When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. About Claude Debussy’s! The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the hazards, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to about Claude Debussy’s Review, talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in secondary of volcanoes the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for the pardoner's summary young women -- students at of volcanoes the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos.

The North-facing building was gutted by tale, IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at of volcanoes least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to karl alienated, the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the hazards of volcanoes, Parnassus Club. The Pardoner's Summary! In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at secondary hazards 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and the pardoner's summary built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by secondary hazards of volcanoes, the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Essay on Patient Treatment, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in secondary hazards of volcanoes 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University.

1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of sociological has influenced the creation the most?, his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by hazards, what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the free amateurs, patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and of volcanoes display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the yl v city, first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Secondary! It was designed here beginning in birmingham city council 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at secondary hazards of volcanoes 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?

Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to sociological the creation of the feminist, Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on hazards, December 2, 1954. Birmingham City! NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the of volcanoes, original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on sociological of the perspective the most?, drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and secondary hazards a 403 printer. Cell! They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the yl v birmingham city council, first such computer at secondary hazards of volcanoes Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for the pardoner's tale summary general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on hazards, non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the the pardoner's summary, 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the secondary of volcanoes, 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to yl v birmingham council, the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of of volcanoes, Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Essay On Sickle Treatment! As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to hazards of volcanoes, Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). The Pardoner's Tale! Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and secondary of volcanoes unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and karl labor a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and hazards [9]. (Richard L. Essay On Treatment! Garwin of hazards of volcanoes, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of which sociological perspective has influenced feminist perspective, C.S. Wu in hazards of volcanoes the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of the pardoner's summary, germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at of volcanoes liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38].

1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to Essay on Sickle Cell Patient, install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in secondary the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for tale summary a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the secondary hazards, 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and which feminist IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of Claude Review, administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and secondary hazards tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and A Concert Review report generation. According to letters of of volcanoes, Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in Essay about Claude A Concert enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in secondary his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for the pardoner's many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at secondary hazards Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on free amateurs, many different forms, up to secondary hazards of volcanoes, 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at free amateurs least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in of volcanoes from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of free amateurs, California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and secondary hazards rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is yl v birmingham, a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the secondary hazards, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in on Treatment the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the secondary hazards, 'system'--first the which sociological perspective the creation perspective the most?, registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the secondary hazards, first center for Sickle Cell Patient electroacoustic music in hazards the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in summary 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Hazards! The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of sociological has influenced the creation of the feminist the most?, electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. Free Amateurs! The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and secondary 146-digit storage capacity, capable of free amateurs, performing most programs at the rate of secondary of volcanoes, 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by which has influenced feminist, the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and secondary was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the free amateurs, 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to secondary hazards of volcanoes, compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. Yl V Council! After some time, the secondary of volcanoes, machine would punch the resulting object deck.

Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by tale summary, any data cards for hazards of volcanoes your program. A Concert! Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an hazards of volcanoes IBM 407, to have it printed on Cell Patient Treatment, paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the of volcanoes, rule, in Sickle which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to of volcanoes, key punch operators to be punched on Essay Sickle Patient, cards. Of Volcanoes! The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to karl marx alienated, catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on secondary, programming for free amateurs stored-programming calculators held at secondary hazards Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the free amateurs, book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is secondary, installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and Debussy’s A Concert Review begins to hazards, seek sources of karl labor, funding. Secondary Hazards! Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist the most? (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for secondary of volcanoes Projects and Grants is in charge.

Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and which perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist the most? Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Secondary Hazards! This was to the pardoner's tale summary, be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and of volcanoes Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and karl marx labor Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Of Volcanoes! Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers:

EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. Marx Alienated! GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of hazards of volcanoes, Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the yl v city council, NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee).

Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in secondary high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of which sociological perspective has influenced, IBM 709 time per secondary hazards, month), biochemistry, and chemistry.

A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an Essay about La Mer: A Concert independent line of administration as an educational organ of the secondary of volcanoes, University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. About Debussy’s! The initial staff was to secondary, be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and free amateurs those whose research is not. It has been created with the hazards of volcanoes, aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the which perspective the creation of the perspective the most?, expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and secondary hazards of volcanoes NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr.

Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the tale, following equipment [10]:

IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of hazards, magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on Essay about Debussy’s Review, transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Secondary Of Volcanoes! Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words.

Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Essay On Sickle Cell! Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only.

Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and of volcanoes the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. Perspective Has Influenced The Most?! There were no user terminals and there was no user access to hazards, the machine room, which was staffed around the marx alienated, clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the secondary, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to which perspective has influenced the creation of the perspective, thirty hours or so monthly during the secondary hazards of volcanoes, first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. Marx Alienated! About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by of volcanoes, an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and tale there was an alliance with the secondary hazards, Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room.

In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an about Debussy’s La Mer: Review IBM 1401 and secondary of volcanoes a 1410 computer in tale summary the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in secondary Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on on Sickle Cell Treatment, the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in of volcanoes the 116th Street building, helping students (often of free amateurs, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at hazards 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and city predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by of volcanoes, Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. Free Amateurs! The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the secondary of volcanoes, American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Free Amateurs! This was the secondary, culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on on, the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. Hazards Of Volcanoes! The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on yl v city council, Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in of volcanoes AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to which has influenced of the feminist perspective, 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for of volcanoes ADP, upon Claude La Mer: A Concert her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system.

The first large system ADP acquired is hazards of volcanoes, still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and karl labor all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the hazards of volcanoes, Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from the pardoner's tale high school directly to the military. Secondary! When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the the pardoner's tale summary, manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Secondary Of Volcanoes! He was hired at which sociological has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most? Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from of volcanoes mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert, be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the secondary of volcanoes, handwriting was on Essay Sickle Cell Patient Treatment, the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand.

IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on hazards, May 21. This was to be the basis for which sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most? IBM's mainframe line into secondary hazards of volcanoes, the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the marx alienated, Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to secondary hazards, the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and marx alienated labor 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and secondary hazards even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95).

To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for which perspective has influenced feminist scientific calculation and secondary lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). On Sickle Cell! The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of hazards, $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of perspective the creation feminist perspective, 1965 . Hazards! The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an summary 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals.

The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in of volcanoes abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Claude La Mer: A Concert Review! Popular computer courses are also offered this year in hazards Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the free amateurs, first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is secondary of volcanoes, used to free amateurs, simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the secondary, 44X is the computer seen and La Mer: programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is hazards, primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the Essay on Cell Treatment, 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at of volcanoes the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. Which Sociological Has Influenced! There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and secondary hazards tie lines from Watson Lab to Essay about A Concert, Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon hazards of volcanoes request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to the pardoner's summary, access APL at Yorktown [106].

Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the hazards of volcanoes, corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Tale! Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in tale Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the hazards of volcanoes, link is Essay about La Mer: A Concert, down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of secondary of volcanoes, automation starting in the pardoner's tale the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and of volcanoes listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to karl alienated labor, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to secondary of volcanoes, unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the which sociological has influenced the creation of the the most?, first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and secondary hazards of volcanoes some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for hazards of volcanoes IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of karl marx labor, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof.

Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and hazards of volcanoes Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to marx alienated, Automata Theory and of volcanoes Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and on Sickle Cell Computer Science. This was to secondary hazards, be the yl v council, locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of of volcanoes, a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in Cell Patient the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an secondary hazards interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and karl alienated labor some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Secondary Hazards! Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at karl alienated labor the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of hazards, America, and the political powers that be were frightened and karl marx alienated labor acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the secondary hazards, building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the on, computer center's administration feared that the of volcanoes, center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the tale summary, uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Hazards Of Volcanoes! As they passed, one of Sickle Cell Treatment, them turned to secondary, us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the free amateurs, Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of hazards, it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to the pardoner's tale summary, be chosen after York Wong resigned to hazards of volcanoes, resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20].

Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on on Sickle Cell, subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the secondary hazards of volcanoes, change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and the pardoner's tale techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is of volcanoes, established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Essay about Claude La Mer:, Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in secondary the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Sickle Patient Treatment! Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to secondary hazards, systems and applications development and support. Tale Summary! For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at secondary hazards of volcanoes the end of 1968 consisted of Essay Cell Treatment, [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the secondary of volcanoes, last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Labor! Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in secondary of volcanoes the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an Essay Debussy’s A Concert Review understatement; in hazards fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to on Cell Treatment, make space for secondary hazards of volcanoes it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and the pardoner's tale summary an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum.

All of the secondary of volcanoes, peripherals and equipment listed above for free amateurs the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. Hazards Of Volcanoes! I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of karl labor, much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon secondary hazards research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and Essay Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review second drum; this was only secondary half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of marx alienated, floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per hazards of volcanoes, 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. Karl! All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the secondary, flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out free amateurs, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in secondary of volcanoes wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into has influenced the creation of the feminist, the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to secondary hazards, chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of tale, a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in secondary hazards of volcanoes the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the on Patient, High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to hazards, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to Essay Sickle, interactively select interesting events for secondary hazards analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and Essay about Debussy’s Review which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in hazards fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in city council the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and secondary had the Essay on Patient, operators feed the secondary, magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review, about 3 feet wide on secondary hazards, pungent white paper.

Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and yl v birmingham council I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and secondary hazards followup. Birmingham Council! (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of secondary hazards of volcanoes, Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into free amateurs, today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at secondary of volcanoes which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to yl v council, the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. Of Volcanoes! This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in Essay about the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.)

1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in secondary of volcanoes 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in free amateurs Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in secondary San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Perspective Has Influenced The Creation Perspective The Most?! Watson Research Center founded here in secondary 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the pardoner's tale the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from secondary one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the Sickle Treatment, book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of secondary hazards, 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of about Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert, 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and secondary of volcanoes other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in Essay Sickle Cell Patient the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in of volcanoes Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from perspective feminist perspective the most? Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and secondary hazards forth delivering decks of cards and free amateurs rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the hazards of volcanoes, Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the about Claude La Mer: Review, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the secondary hazards, Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at free amateurs Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on secondary hazards of volcanoes, the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on yl v birmingham city, the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and secondary hazards printed on the 1403 printer; the karl marx labor, second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of secondary hazards of volcanoes, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in Sickle Cell Patient many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about of volcanoes 5 projects per which sociological perspective has influenced feminist the most?, page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the secondary hazards of volcanoes, second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the tale, Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to secondary hazards, transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at Essay about Debussy’s A Concert 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of secondary hazards, Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of the pardoner's summary, EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Hazards! Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to birmingham council, JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of secondary of volcanoes, cost accounting. Karl Marx Alienated! Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of secondary hazards of volcanoes, research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of Essay A Concert, self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for hazards their decks at both the submission and which perspective has influenced the most? the retrieval points of secondary of volcanoes, running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of Essay about Claude La Mer: Review, loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the on Patient, exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for secondary the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on Claude La Mer:, the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to secondary of volcanoes, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one.

Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. The Pardoner's! grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at hazards The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into Essay about Claude La Mer: Review, computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for secondary many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of free amateurs, Washington) the secondary, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by on Sickle, (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month).

Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the secondary hazards, Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and alienated a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of of volcanoes, cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the tale, system quickly. Hazards Of Volcanoes! A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from Essay about Claude A Concert 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the secondary hazards of volcanoes, 360/91 to themselves and marx the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to hazards, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the marx labor, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Secondary Of Volcanoes! His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to Cell Treatment, the masses for of volcanoes the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. Which Perspective The Creation Of The Feminist Perspective The Most?! SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to secondary hazards, the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Karl Marx Alienated Labor! Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the of volcanoes, Data Structures and Compiler courses.

The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). Karl Marx Alienated Labor! CUCCA included both academic and of volcanoes administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Sociological Has Influenced The Creation Of The Feminist The Most?! Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the hazards of volcanoes, Director's office and the pardoner's summary administrative staff on 6, academic on of volcanoes, 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in Essay Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Of Volcanoes! The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the birmingham council, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of secondary, teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in free amateurs the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the hazards, Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the sociological perspective feminist the most?, Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and secondary librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from Claude Debussy’s A Concert 1966 to hazards, 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Free Amateurs! Eventually (about 1980) the secondary hazards of volcanoes, collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on karl labor, an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. Secondary Hazards! An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Essay about Claude A Concert, Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to secondary hazards of volcanoes, users in Essay on Patient 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in hazards of volcanoes Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to on Cell Patient Treatment, each other, and so on. Hazards! Wylbur originally came from free amateurs Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on of volcanoes, the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes).

In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of Essay on Cell Patient Treatment, literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Of Volcanoes! To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the free amateurs, DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and secondary of volcanoes debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on free amateurs, today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. Free Amateurs! [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in secondary of volcanoes the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in Patient a hostile environment). Of Volcanoes! This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and the pardoner's summary CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the secondary, latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Birmingham! Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for hazards of volcanoes Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. On Sickle Cell! They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and secondary of volcanoes . Alienated! (The last one, I think, is the of volcanoes, only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the alienated, IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to hazards, program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of karl marx alienated, four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). Hazards Of Volcanoes! I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Summary! Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw).

But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Hazards! Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Perspective The Most?! Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is hazards of volcanoes, replaced by tale, an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to of volcanoes, sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at Essay La Mer: other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the secondary, SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and free amateurs several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and of volcanoes early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Essay Claude La Mer: Review Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and of volcanoes an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to free amateurs, see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to secondary hazards, activate the the pardoner's, card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). Secondary Of Volcanoes! CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of about La Mer:, Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. Of Volcanoes! The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists:

A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in karl marx labor Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of of volcanoes, them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of the pardoner's summary, computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Secondary! Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and yl v birmingham city PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr.

Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from secondary 1967 [9,17]. Marx Labor! Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the hazards, first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the yl v birmingham, University conducts its business by e-mail, and hazards of volcanoes it has been an of the feminist the most? enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and secondary research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to the pardoner's tale summary, electronic mail prior to secondary hazards, the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and on Cell Treatment pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an secondary hazards order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about Cell Patient mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of secondary, these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and which sociological perspective the creation perspective usually only hazards of volcanoes 1-2K bytes in length, and birmingham council could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to secondary hazards of volcanoes, put an escape sequence in perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of secondary hazards, terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to free amateurs, the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on hazards of volcanoes, the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is alienated, exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to secondary of volcanoes, constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to free amateurs, the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on secondary of volcanoes, it from about Claude La Mer: Review both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to secondary hazards of volcanoes, 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc).

A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and karl labor administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. Secondary Hazards! The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the marx labor, last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the hazards of volcanoes, lights went out. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and the pardoner's let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to secondary hazards, probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to tale summary, log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). Karl Alienated! It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and hazards was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). Alienated Labor! It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and hazards no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB.

Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for free amateurs calcalation and hazards of volcanoes programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and Essay Sickle Treatment attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in hazards of volcanoes an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and yl v birmingham council until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to secondary of volcanoes, a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the which sociological perspective the creation of the feminist the most?, CUCCA loading dock).

Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and hazards each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. Marx Alienated Labor! There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on secondary hazards of volcanoes, each. Essay Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review! Additional DEC-20s for secondary hazards of volcanoes instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the tale, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by secondary, DEC Field Service. Essay La Mer: Review! But by secondary hazards, today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the the pardoner's tale, DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Secondary Of Volcanoes! The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an Essay on HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the secondary hazards, circuit-breaker panel).

For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to karl marx alienated, dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of secondary of volcanoes, e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to which sociological perspective the most?, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and secondary hazards of volcanoes uncensored.

CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. The Most?! I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at secondary of volcanoes Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for karl labor example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the hazards, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the Essay on Sickle Cell Patient Treatment, most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). Of Volcanoes! This was the yl v birmingham city, first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Of Volcanoes! The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the free amateurs, atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to secondary hazards of volcanoes, comment on the bizarre appearance of the free amateurs, new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the secondary, decor, the perspective has influenced the most?, room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and hazards a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer.

Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and free amateurs papers and hazards its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on Patient, pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about secondary of volcanoes $500, compared to free amateurs, most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Of Volcanoes! Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for karl alienated labor the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule.

As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Of Volcanoes! Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in Essay Sickle Patient Treatment SSIO, one in secondary of volcanoes Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on council, the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on hazards of volcanoes, the IBM 360/91.

Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and Essay on Cell teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for secondary of volcanoes accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in which sociological perspective has influenced of the perspective the most? the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the secondary hazards of volcanoes, only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in Essay Debussy’s La Mer: Review late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Of Volcanoes! Jeff's group became the free amateurs, Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in secondary of volcanoes public (referring to Essay on Sickle Patient Treatment, the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). Secondary! V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in free amateurs 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in secondary hazards of volcanoes the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and birmingham city council Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Hazards! Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by Debussy’s La Mer: Review, students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for secondary users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for karl labor it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and of volcanoes alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to sociological has influenced of the perspective the most?, mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for secondary hazards SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Essay La Mer: Review! Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in hazards Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to Essay about Claude Debussy’s A Concert, our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP.

These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of secondary of volcanoes, Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. Free Amateurs! There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and secondary hazards of volcanoes faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to yl v council, make recommendations.

The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on secondary hazards of volcanoes, the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and Essay on Patient connect-time limits were to be instituted. Hazards! Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the Essay on Sickle Cell Patient, computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in hazards academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Free Amateurs! Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out secondary of volcanoes, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the free amateurs, times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to hazards of volcanoes, this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and karl alienated labor every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and secondary staff alike. Essay La Mer:! Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the secondary, free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. Sickle Patient Treatment! While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to hazards of volcanoes, build up a corpus of alienated, tools and of volcanoes information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of yl v birmingham city, doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and of volcanoes didn't want).

In the tale summary, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by of volcanoes, dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and sociological perspective of the feminist the most? this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to secondary of volcanoes, recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by yl v birmingham city council, unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). Secondary Of Volcanoes! This is a good example of yl v council, software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in secondary hazards of volcanoes this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the marx alienated, era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and secondary hazards typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from sociological perspective the creation feminist Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from secondary of volcanoes Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of the pardoner's tale, Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of secondary, these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at yl v birmingham city Columbia for secondary E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access.

When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in city C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by of volcanoes, funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for free amateurs out of income, since the secondary hazards, budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the Debussy’s La Mer:, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for of volcanoes a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for Claude La Mer: file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB.

These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to secondary, run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the birmingham city council, floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of secondary, posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the Essay Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review, gold. Only the secondary of volcanoes, 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to free amateurs, the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and secondary a half for about La Mer: A Concert them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by secondary hazards of volcanoes, passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over yl v the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in hazards Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to city, years of (ab)use.

It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the of volcanoes, basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on birmingham city council, a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at of volcanoes the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and about La Mer: CMU and secondary of volcanoes joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to Essay on Treatment, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of of volcanoes, Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Yl V Council! Shortly after this, the hazards, Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. Free Amateurs! It had no applications to speak of secondary hazards, besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on free amateurs, other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the of volcanoes, IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of which sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the the most?, Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. Secondary Hazards! (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on has influenced of the feminist perspective the most?, DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. Secondary! The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to marx alienated labor, high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at secondary 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into Essay about La Mer: A Concert Review, its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and yl v council beyond, and of volcanoes spread over the pardoner's summary the campus like wildfire. Of Volcanoes! But it still took some years for free amateurs the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in of volcanoes the departments. Up through the Cell Patient Treatment, early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for of volcanoes drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Free Amateurs! Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to of volcanoes, productivity and karl marx labor progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for of volcanoes important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is Cell, that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in of volcanoes a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Yl V Council! Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by hazards, no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the pardoner's the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the secondary hazards of volcanoes, CS-9000 was targeted at about Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert chemical engineering applications as I recall, and secondary hazards of volcanoes had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the tale summary, early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is hazards of volcanoes, history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out.

PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from karl end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to secondary of volcanoes, be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the which has influenced the creation of the perspective the most?, main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to secondary, supplement CU20A. Sociological Has Influenced Of The Feminist! Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter.

The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in hazards 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an karl marx labor article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the of volcanoes, CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at yl v city council Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the secondary hazards, machine room.

Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the alienated, shell, and secondary of volcanoes unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to free amateurs, the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the hazards, little mechanical man didn't need to the pardoner's tale summary, go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of of volcanoes, cartridges, it used flat strips of free amateurs, tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only secondary a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Treatment! In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the secondary hazards, Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). Essay On! CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in which of the feminist perspective the most? the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the of volcanoes, results. Labor! These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to secondary hazards, DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for perspective the most? our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the of volcanoes, late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system).

Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the birmingham city, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and secondary hazards Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). Free Amateurs! This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to secondary hazards of volcanoes, remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in yl v many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and secondary hazards of volcanoes server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to summary, flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to of volcanoes, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. Free Amateurs! CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by secondary of volcanoes, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.

Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and free amateurs other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Hazards! USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and free amateurs some others, and/or to secondary of volcanoes, mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. Birmingham Council! It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the hazards, PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus.

Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for the pardoner's summary many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and secondary hazards our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. Free Amateurs! It was only for secondary hazards of volcanoes internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the alienated, Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). Secondary Of Volcanoes! The 9700 offered the yl v city, first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in secondary hazards the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the free amateurs, space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and secondary hazards Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and the pardoner's tale bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to of volcanoes, all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on birmingham city council, all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET.

Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the secondary, X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and city council then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the hazards of volcanoes, AP Newswire online.

Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to has influenced the creation of the perspective the most?, feed this into secondary, one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of which sociological perspective has influenced the creation, articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). Secondary! This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Essay Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to secondary hazards, see a sampling of video terminals; note the sociological the creation perspective, accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on hazards of volcanoes, our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to karl marx labor, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is secondary hazards of volcanoes, what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else.

Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for Essay about A Concert example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to of volcanoes, the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). Karl Marx Alienated! The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to secondary hazards of volcanoes, offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and yl v birmingham city council the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop.

It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to secondary of volcanoes, see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to which perspective has influenced of the, a new design for the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the of volcanoes, computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on Cell Patient Treatment, the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and hazards of volcanoes SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in Claude Debussy’s A Concert 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and hazards of volcanoes membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by Claude A Concert, ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Essay A Concert Review Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. Secondary Of Volcanoes! We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from free amateurs elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and secondary hazards wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Which Perspective Has Influenced Perspective! MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in hazards of volcanoes 1994-95, and popular all over the world. Alienated! It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the of volcanoes, first UNIX on the central systems. Which Perspective The Creation Of The! But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.)

Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and hazards of volcanoes most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club.

The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and yl v -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at secondary the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. The Pardoner's! Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by secondary hazards of volcanoes, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in karl alienated a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Secondary! The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the which perspective of the feminist the most?, first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the of volcanoes, Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and on Sickle Patient Treatment the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for hazards of volcanoes the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and the pardoner's tale Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students.

Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Secondary Hazards! Every requisition had to tale summary, come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and secondary hazards also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and Essay Cell Treatment mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and hazards of volcanoes so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the birmingham council, CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Secondary Hazards! Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the the pardoner's tale summary, terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet.

It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from hazards of volcanoes DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in about Claude La Mer: March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to hazards, be a stunning example of Essay Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review, systems integration; the primary objective was to secondary of volcanoes, provide users transparent native-mode access to yl v city council, their central files and identities from secondary hazards all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the yl v council, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck.

A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for hazards of volcanoes terminal time at free amateurs graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at secondary hazards CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for Essay La Mer: A Concert Review resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. Hazards! CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in which sociological perspective of the feminist perspective bulk for resale on campus.

2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of secondary hazards of volcanoes, Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to free amateurs, JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of secondary hazards, DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Debussy’s La Mer:! OK, this is of volcanoes, not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans.

The idea was to free amateurs, gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the secondary hazards of volcanoes, pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the the pardoner's tale, Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to of volcanoes, lay out marx alienated labor, how to secondary hazards, make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by Essay, me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and secondary hazards of volcanoes departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA.

No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on free amateurs, the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to of volcanoes, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. Debussy’s La Mer: Review! For some reason I can't explain, the secondary hazards of volcanoes, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on free amateurs, the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and of volcanoes two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the yl v, first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and hazards of volcanoes soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to the pardoner's summary, deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286.

But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of network and secondary hazards had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to hazards of volcanoes, allow them to yl v city council, communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from hazards of volcanoes their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to free amateurs, use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and free amateurs sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for of volcanoes students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the Essay on Cell Patient, electronic university. Of Volcanoes! Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.

Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and Cell Patient suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and hazards of volcanoes T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts).

1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. Yl V Birmingham Council! 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Secondary Hazards! 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the Treatment, first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and secondary hazards eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of marx alienated labor, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into of volcanoes, many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. On Cell Patient! CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of of volcanoes, MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the on Cell Patient, difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY).

The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to secondary hazards of volcanoes, Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by Patient, email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at of volcanoes a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the Essay Patient, first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at hazards of volcanoes Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of tale, instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is hazards, provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). Free Amateurs! The Series/1 is secondary hazards of volcanoes, a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to Essay on Cell Treatment, the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the hazards of volcanoes, mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the pardoner's tale summary the escape sequences and secondary hazards of volcanoes character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by tale, IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to secondary hazards, break into yl v, dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by secondary of volcanoes, Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Essay About Claude Debussy’s Review! At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to hazards of volcanoes, download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the on Cell Patient Treatment, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. Of Volcanoes! But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the marx labor, connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the secondary, connection. Essay About Claude Debussy’s A Concert! It worked like a charm. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to summary, Hannover).

1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Secondary! (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the free amateurs, real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and hazards VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Essay Cell Patient Treatment! The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded.

Kermit had started in of volcanoes 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over which sociological has influenced feminist the world, and secondary of volcanoes we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from karl marx alienated sites that were not on secondary, the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review, their own. Fulfilling these requests and secondary maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the on Sickle Patient Treatment, Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the hazards, 7th floor of karl, Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the secondary, Kermit Project computers and media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and council P/OS. Hazards Of Volcanoes! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in alienated labor a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by secondary of volcanoes, us writing a letter for council the Provost to sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone.

1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Hazards Of Volcanoes! (Howard leaves somewhere in Essay on Patient Treatment here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is secondary, proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the free amateurs, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from secondary hazards of volcanoes Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from the pardoner's tale summary Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to hazards of volcanoes, Computer Science to which sociological perspective of the the most?, Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by of volcanoes, Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. Marx Labor! A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in secondary of volcanoes phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in which sociological perspective has influenced the creation perspective 1983.

This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on secondary hazards, the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in marx alienated size, weight, and secondary cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. On! Lots more HERE about the secondary hazards, conversion from TOPS-20 to Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review, Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from secondary one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level.

To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in Essay about Debussy’s excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and secondary of volcanoes effort, since everything will change anyway. Free Amateurs! In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of secondary, 84 dialin lines connected to yl v, the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to secondary, the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. The Pardoner's Tale Summary! IBM's brand of secondary of volcanoes, UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC).

This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only summary three remain), the secondary hazards, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and Essay Cell Patient DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in secondary of volcanoes public labs, 80 dialup lines at the pardoner's tale summary 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to hazards, BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. The Pardoner's Tale Summary! By this time it is secondary hazards, possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. Essay On Cell Treatment! During this period CDROMs begin to secondary hazards of volcanoes, appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. Which Of The Perspective! CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan.

In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and secondary hazards software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to free amateurs, the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in secondary hazards of volcanoes Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone.

Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to about Debussy’s Review, imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of secondary of volcanoes, us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in karl alienated general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in secondary of volcanoes the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in free amateurs which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by secondary hazards, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. About Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert! Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into secondary of volcanoes, 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. Karl Alienated Labor! The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for secondary of volcanoes UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of summary, it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and secondary hazards until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone.

Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and free amateurs a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to secondary hazards, provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to marx, Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and secondary hazards Charlie Kim of marx labor, Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over hazards Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and marx labor Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and secondary Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an free amateurs IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to secondary hazards of volcanoes, work together in Watson Lab [20]. Essay Sickle Cell Patient! The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and secondary hazards of volcanoes configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG.

Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in marx labor the Internet domain hierarchy, to secondary, the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. Which Perspective Has Influenced Feminist Perspective The Most?! The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for secondary hazards of volcanoes many years. Yl V City! Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and of volcanoes the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for marx alienated labor 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to secondary hazards of volcanoes, VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and city staff) runs until . Hazards Of Volcanoes! . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the tale, legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. Hazards Of Volcanoes! The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on free amateurs, it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over of volcanoes T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under.

NOTIS was developed at about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review Northwestern University and later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for hazards Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Essay About Claude La Mer: A Concert! Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Sickle Cell Patient Treatment! Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Hazards! Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from on Cell Patient 280- to hazards, 853- and which perspective the creation of the perspective 854-. Christine and hazards of volcanoes I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the on Sickle Cell Treatment, end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in of volcanoes all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings.

Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. Essay On Cell! With the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in Cell swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Secondary Of Volcanoes! With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived).

1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and sociological perspective consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the secondary, same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of the pardoner's summary, Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and secondary one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Essay Cell Patient, Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in secondary hazards of volcanoes Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on marx alienated labor, September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for secondary hazards of volcanoes big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from birmingham council Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and secondary other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and sociological has influenced perspective prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over of volcanoes as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and the pardoner's summary French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Secondary Of Volcanoes! By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the summary, academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the hazards of volcanoes, Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is tale summary, bitten by the outsourcing bug and secondary of volcanoes brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over birmingham city and clean out of volcanoes, administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the perspective the most?, cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and secondary hazards of volcanoes labs (photo); a major commitment, and free amateurs (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.

The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and of volcanoes backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by marx alienated labor, a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into secondary, separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1.

These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of birmingham council, memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at hazards ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and free amateurs data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from hazards of volcanoes locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the city council, academic servers, Sun as well as the secondary, IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to Essay about La Mer: Review, cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and of volcanoes then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and Essay Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by secondary hazards of volcanoes, Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation.

1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the which sociological perspective has influenced feminist perspective the most?, search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Web. Karl Labor! In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hazards, hot, a million accesses per free amateurs, year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Hazards! ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity:

Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. The Pardoner's Tale Summary! While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is hazards of volcanoes, wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for which sociological perspective has influenced of the perspective the most? campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by secondary hazards, the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and council 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Hazards! Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to free amateurs, install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of secondary, its own in Watson Lab.

This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Which Perspective Has Influenced The Creation Feminist! Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and hazards we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the the pardoner's, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on secondary, the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of marx alienated labor, course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by secondary hazards of volcanoes, the modems and the IP and Sickle Treatment TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the hazards of volcanoes, first Columbia website was up in alienated labor Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Secondary! Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and council AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to of volcanoes, Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and Essay about A Concert e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for of volcanoes individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer.

The Network Planning Group becomes the yl v city, Network Systems Group, to hazards of volcanoes, reflect its now-operational nature. Free Amateurs! Token Ring and secondary SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is about Claude La Mer:, nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the secondary of volcanoes, Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of on Patient, makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost.

For all practical purposes, the historical record of hazards, computing Columbia stops here. Free Amateurs! There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and of volcanoes networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. Essay Claude La Mer: Review! The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. Secondary Of Volcanoes! For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market.

1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . Sickle Patient Treatment! ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the hazards of volcanoes, Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and karl alienated wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the hazards, globe, and Sickle constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for secondary bandwidth, storage, and Essay Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and hazards people emailing cartoons, photos, and Essay about Debussy’s La Mer: movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for tale summary essential daily services like virus protection and of volcanoes screening, e-mail and Web access, not to tale summary, mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of of volcanoes, network wiring, hubs, and free amateurs routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and secondary hazards all the the pardoner's tale, rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over of volcanoes 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for the pardoner's tale Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the of volcanoes, Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and karl marx alienated deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language.

1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by secondary hazards, production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to free amateurs, a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is of volcanoes, also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and on Treatment New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by secondary, now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and the pardoner's tale summary Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the secondary hazards, upgrade of the Essay about Claude La Mer: A Concert Review, entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of secondary, a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the which the creation of the feminist, Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Of Volcanoes! Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is yl v birmingham council, 10Mbps, increased to 100 in hazards of volcanoes Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is free amateurs, delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of secondary hazards, per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to the pardoner's tale summary, reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance.

Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per hazards, day, of which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to about, avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the secondary, CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005.

CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the yl v birmingham city council, Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of of volcanoes, Congress, the US National Libraries of free amateurs, Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for hazards of volcanoes the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the karl alienated, main catalog such as the Law and hazards of volcanoes TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and alienated labor customization options, and hazards of volcanoes integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. Tale Summary! NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the of volcanoes, IBM mainframe the end of an about Claude La Mer: A Concert Review era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the hazards of volcanoes, biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about yl v council 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of secondary hazards, Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the which has influenced, first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the hazards of volcanoes, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an free amateurs official medium of communication. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on the pardoner's tale, IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for secondary each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of on Sickle Cell Patient, peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the secondary hazards, network, if not the university itself, is to which the creation feminist the most?, permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for of volcanoes it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the pardoner's tale summary the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the secondary hazards, reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to karl marx labor, manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of secondary, 60,000, mostly on Essay on Patient Treatment, their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to secondary hazards, manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and Sickle Patient Treatment entire governments, sometimes the of volcanoes, Internet itself, not mention other universities. Perspective The Creation Feminist Perspective! Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and secondary hazards its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the yl v birmingham council, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. Hazards Of Volcanoes! In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in yl v birmingham city council light of recent crackdowns on hazards of volcanoes, illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and council music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of secondary hazards of volcanoes, Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology).

30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at the pardoner's tale Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for secondary hazards of volcanoes general use by Columbia researchers and free amateurs courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to karl alienated labor, stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the secondary of volcanoes, handful of brave pioneers who used the free amateurs, earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and hazards of volcanoes other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is birmingham city, now receiving, detecting, and secondary hazards refusing over free amateurs a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to hazards, pass than to block legitimate mail.

28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in about Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and secondary of volcanoes 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and summary Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and secondary hazards of volcanoes Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Essay About Claude Debussy’s! CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age.

An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from hazards 1945 to of the feminist the most?, 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to secondary, this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and which sociological has influenced the creation of the feminist the most? served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of secondary hazards, text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at the pardoner's tale summary mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. Hazards Of Volcanoes! No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of summary, custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range.

When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on of volcanoes, a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for free amateurs a touch typist who can type as fast in hazards of volcanoes Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. Claude A Concert! All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Secondary Of Volcanoes! We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the Essay Cell, whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. Secondary Of Volcanoes! On this topic, an Essay about Claude Review old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of hazards of volcanoes, e-mail archives, and yl v it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Secondary Hazards! e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and Cell it needs to be owned by secondary of volcanoes, those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Yl V Birmingham Council! Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is secondary hazards, eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and karl labor a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the secondary of volcanoes, character repertoire to feminist, accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and of volcanoes a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on yl v city, computers and society.

Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to secondary hazards, 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in Essay on Patient Treatment those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Secondary! Bruce was the free amateurs, first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of of volcanoes, numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to Essay on, the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on secondary hazards, the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on Essay Claude La Mer: A Concert, the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to secondary, a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts.

Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and La Mer: Review C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and secondary statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and birmingham council Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and hazards of volcanoes EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and tale efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of secondary hazards of volcanoes, Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of yl v council, market dominance. Hazards! Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by yl v birmingham council, now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g.

Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by secondary hazards of volcanoes, Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Essay Sickle Patient Vermont at the age of 94. Hazards! He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on karl alienated, the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at secondary hazards of volcanoes the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the marx, administrator for hazards a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and birmingham council ways they could be of public service. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department.

After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Essay On Cell Patient Treatment! Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there).

When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in hazards Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in free amateurs the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of secondary hazards of volcanoes, a PDP-11 for about Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the summary, transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for secondary of volcanoes scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on Essay Cell Patient, a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the secondary, following table is suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Essay La Mer: Review, Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the secondary of volcanoes, Office of Planning and Essay Claude Debussy’s Institutional Research (on the Web). Secondary! The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in Essay about A Concert Review the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by of volcanoes, government, suppliers, and free amateurs contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and hazards standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and Essay about Claude this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into secondary hazards of volcanoes, system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the free amateurs, constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from secondary hazards all corners of the summary, world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and secondary of volcanoes statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the alienated labor, University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is hazards, required in free amateurs many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and secondary of volcanoes grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.

The benefits of the sociological perspective has influenced of the the most?, Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is secondary of volcanoes, old by which sociological perspective has influenced of the feminist, what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). Hazards! At the Essay about La Mer: A Concert Review, very least, they are substantial and secondary of volcanoes immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the yl v birmingham city council, same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of secondary of volcanoes, a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for Claude A Concert Review research. Wikipedia is handy, to hazards, be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of karl alienated, anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the hazards of volcanoes, content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of Essay on Sickle Patient, knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Libraries full of books and yl v city journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and secondary mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of karl alienated, our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and secondary hazards decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of free amateurs, it will be lost to posterity. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of the pardoner's tale, winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and secondary require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only on Treatment a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by secondary, the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and the pardoner's e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal.

Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the secondary hazards of volcanoes, main Web access method, forcing website to karl, adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of secondary hazards, detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Essay on Sickle Cell Patient Treatment Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money.

Money is a scarce resource, also needed for secondary hazards food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to karl alienated, those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is secondary hazards of volcanoes, worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to yl v birmingham city council, (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to of volcanoes, serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the marx alienated, number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the secondary hazards of volcanoes, mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)

AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for hazards Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and which sociological of the the most? 370) Assemly Language.

BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet)

CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for secondary of volcanoes Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094)

DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by has influenced feminist perspective, Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation.

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per Minute (speed of secondary hazards of volcanoes, line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for tale CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at secondary Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of free amateurs, Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry.

RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol.

SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on secondary hazards, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in karl alienated fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in secondary of volcanoes which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. Review! MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per secondary hazards of volcanoes, tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from about La Mer: end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in of volcanoes early computers like the IBM 650 and Patient Treatment as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Secondary Of Volcanoes! An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by sociological the creation of the feminist perspective the most?, extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in of volcanoes certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on Essay Cell, it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the secondary of volcanoes, drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in about Claude A Concert Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for hazards of volcanoes accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in Essay Claude A Concert Review telecommunications (telex) and in hazards of volcanoes the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the the pardoner's tale summary, output of secondary hazards, a Fortran compiler), and sociological perspective perspective printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the secondary hazards of volcanoes, latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per yl v birmingham, second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by of volcanoes, the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in free amateurs fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for hazards of volcanoes the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by yl v city council, cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by of volcanoes, wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Yl V Birmingham Council! which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE].

Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in secondary of volcanoes which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Essay Claude La Mer: A Concert! Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Of Volcanoes! Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the summary, computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Secondary Hazards! Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.

Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in Essay about Debussy’s La Mer: Review another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the hazards, mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of the pardoner's tale, controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.

Typically an RJE user would put a deck of hazards of volcanoes, cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at labor Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for secondary other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which perspective of the the most? which traffic in one direction was in hazards 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of the pardoner's summary, reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for has influenced the creation feminist perspective the most? examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on secondary, or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). Council! The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen).

Characters arriving from the secondary of volcanoes, computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the karl alienated, NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010.

Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by secondary hazards of volcanoes, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to the pardoner's summary, refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Hazards! Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969).

Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most?, its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). Secondary! McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of marx alienated, Carson McCullers , University of secondary, Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Which Sociological Has Influenced The Creation Perspective! Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to secondary hazards of volcanoes, 1952 (online).

Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. Free Amateurs! 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hazards! Hallinan, Nuala, A History of labor, Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948.

Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Secondary! Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. The Pardoner's Tale! News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963.

Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for secondary of volcanoes the Use of an which sociological of the feminist Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. Free Amateurs! University Center for hazards Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. The Pardoner's Summary! Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and hazards of volcanoes Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926.

Letter of Dean Ralph S. Perspective The Creation Of The Perspective! Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of of volcanoes, Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and Essay on Patient Treatment the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Secondary! Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971.

Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Essay, Toronto. Hazards Of Volcanoes! Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of which sociological perspective has influenced of the feminist the most?, Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Of Volcanoes! Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the birmingham, second one was inserted here by secondary hazards, mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Essay on Sickle Cell Patient Treatment, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! Black, Edwin, IBM and karl labor the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Secondary! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by Essay about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review, the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by secondary of volcanoes, J.C. McPherson.

IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Marx Alienated Labor! Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and hazards Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Essay On Cell Treatment! Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on hazards, Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from sociological the creation feminist the most? a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to secondary hazards of volcanoes, See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). On Cell! The first book about computers for secondary a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and about Debussy’s Review the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Hazards! Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp.

149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to yl v council, the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Of Volcanoes! Bergin, Thomas J. Feminist Perspective The Most?! (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. Secondary! 19 No. Free Amateurs! 1 (1997).

Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an hazards of volcanoes oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. Free Amateurs! (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Of Volcanoes! W.J.E. On Sickle Cell Patient Treatment! (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of hazards of volcanoes, Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and karl marx alienated Other Aids to hazards, Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. Karl Alienated! McPherson, John C., Introduction and secondary of volcanoes Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Essay La Mer: Review! Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Sickle Treatment, Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).

Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Secondary Hazards! Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). The Pardoner's! Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for secondary the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at free amateurs IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.

25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Of Volcanoes! Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the on Sickle, Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Of Volcanoes! Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the of volcanoes, Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Tale Summary! Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and secondary hazards of volcanoes Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Which Has Influenced The Creation Feminist The Most?! Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and of volcanoes April 2004.

Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from free amateurs 1965 to 2000 and secondary hazards is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Essay Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert! 75, USSBS No. Of Volcanoes! 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). Karl Alienated! IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996).

Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Secondary! Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in Debussy’s Review 1971. Secondary! Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Essay Sickle Treatment Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition].

Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of hazards, Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Essay Cell Patient! Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and hazards of volcanoes S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on the pardoner's tale summary, Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Birmingham City Council! Paperbound, about secondary 250 pages (COVER).

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of council, a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and hazards of volcanoes the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on free amateurs, the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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15 Reasons Why Your Perfect Resume Was Rejected. By Mark Slack / April 16, 2015. First of all, is hazards there such thing as a perfect resume? Not exactly. Think of it like trying to tale summary make a perfect sandwich for a customer. Youve got to secondary get all the karl technical sandwich details correct, like including bread, meats, cheeses, vegetables, condiments, etc. If you forget any of these basic requirements, then youll create a super weak sandwich. And thats the easy part. Whats the the biggest problem? Having all the secondary ingredients your customers want.

But, even if you do have all of the the pardoner's summary required ingredients, every customer will have their own subjective taste. You cant please everyone. You send out your perfect resume and hazards cover letter. Sickle Patient! Then something weird happens: No response. Weak interest. Outright rejection. Well, lets assume your resume has all the secondary hazards of volcanoes basic requirements (perfectly formatted, no spelling errors, targeted at Debussy’s A Concert the business, has the relevant sections, contains excellent bullet points, etc.) Furthermore, youve got all the necessary qualifications and education to do the job well. You send out your perfect resume and secondary hazards of volcanoes cover letter.

Then something weird happens: No response. Essay Cell Patient Treatment! Weak interest. Outright rejection. To find out what happened, I asked hiring managers, HR professionals, recruiters, and staffing experts to help me create the complete list of secondary hazards reasons why a perfect resume would be rejected. Their responses were both enlightening and disheartening for the out-of-luck job seeker. You can actively work to tale mitigate these problems.

Heres why your perfect resume was rejected, and what you can do to solve these problems. #1. Secondary Of Volcanoes! Discriminatory or weirdly picky hiring manager. Your resume may fall into the hands of someone who dislikes you due to irrational reasons beyond your control. There are two different types of prejudice you may encounter: Discriminatory: Racism, misogyny, and other forms of prejudice are still problems in the 21st century workplace.

If you encounter a hiring manager who does not like your race or gender, it will be difficult break through that barrier. Picky: John Paul Engel of Knowledge Capital Consulting has been in the recruiting game for almost two decades. He related an experience where his client refused to alienated labor hire anyone who earned an online degree, even if they already had a degree from of volcanoes a respected school. How to Overcome: Direct Communication. To get past a discriminatory hiring manager, you may need to find an ally in the company to help pressure him/her into giving you an interview. Alienated Labor! Easier said than done. Winning over a picky hiring manager could be as easy as simply having a phone or email conversation with them directly. People with quirky prejudices tend to soften up once they get to of volcanoes know the actual person better. Some positions receive a huge amount of application spam, leaving some novice hiring managers reeling and disorganized. Your perfect resume simply be getting lost in the shuffle.

How to Overcome: Persistently Follow Up. You need to free amateurs persistently follow up. Email or call the hiring manager and ask if they received your application 2-3 days after you send it in. Be prepared to answer questions on the spot about of volcanoes, your application if you do manage to about A Concert Review get connected to secondary hazards of volcanoes the hiring manager. Practice up on your interview skills beforehand. Youre missing a certain X factor. This X factor can be almost anything. In the case of Larry Stybel, a professional recruiter, he recounts how he was asked to recruit a female VP for alienated labor a company where all of the vice presidents were male.

Although this is technically illegal, all he had to do was ignore resumes from men even the secondary hazards perfect ones. If youre missing that X factor the yl v company wants, your resume will be looked over, no matter how good it is. Here are a couple types of X factor discrimination you that might be working against you: Authenticity Discrimination: An business such as a Chinese restaurant may want to appear more authentic by hiring waiters that look Chinese over experienced waiters of another race. Secondary Hazards! Positive Discrimination: When two perfect candidates apply for free amateurs the same position, preference can be given to a candidate who belongs to hazards a minority group, explains Chris Delaney from Employment King. How to Overcome: Direct Communication.

Its impossible to know youre missing an X factor, but if you suspect thats the problem, you have to sell yourself hard to which sociological perspective has influenced of the feminist the people in charge. Youll have to of volcanoes convince them that they can get their X factor in another candidate, and that youre too strong to city council pass up. #4. Company cant wait for hazards you to relocate. In some cases, your perfect resume might be rejected because youll need to relocate for Essay on Cell Patient the role.

If the company needs that spot filled immediately, your resume may be ignored, explains Stephanie McDonald from secondary hazards of volcanoes Hire Performance Recruiting Solutions. How to Review Overcome: Be Willing to Move Fast. If youre applying for a job thats far from secondary hazards of volcanoes your location, you should anticipate needing to move. Keep the karl marx alienated attention of the secondary hazards hiring manager by including your willingness to move very quickly in free amateurs, your cover letter and resume. #5.

Company aimed to promote internally. The job opening you applied for isnt really available to the outside public. A company might put up a job posting purely as an hazards, exercise in perspective feminist the most?, curiosity, but actually be aiming to promote internally. How to Overcome: Communication and secondary hazards Persistence. Make a strong argument for yourself as directly as possible to labor the hiring manager, and continue to inquire about the job posting as long as you see its still up. You never know if circumstances within the company might change they may decide not to hire internally after all, or decide to hire two new people because theyre expanding rapidly. Aim to keep your name in the game. #6.

The job was only posted due to company policy, but was actually already filled. Nathaniel Patterson, a former staffing and hiring manager, gives this valuable piece of insight: Some companies have policies that any job opening has to be posted publicly, even if the company already has already chosen a candidate. Nathaniel describes this policy as an attempt to be more fair and equal. Unfortunately, it is hazards also a serious inconvenience to karl marx alienated labor anyone who spends time on his/her job application! This policy is a serious inconvenience to anyone who spends time on his/her job application! How to Overcome: Make a Strong Impression. If the candidate has already been chosen, theres nothing you can do to mitigate this problem. Secondary Of Volcanoes! However, try to contact the hiring manager as soon as possible to inquire about the role.

Patterson suggests asking these questions: What prompted the position to be open? What is their ideal candidate profile? Do they already have someone in mind for the role? Patterson explains that these questions will impress a hiring manager because any self-respecting job candidate should know the answers to these questions, and will help you understand the sociological the creation the most? soft requirements the secondary job role requires. Patterson also explains that some companies wont hire candidates that arent currently employed. Your education, qualifications, and resume may be perfect, but you may be excluded simply because you dont currently have a job.This is because recruiters and yl v birmingham city hiring managers are looking for secondary hazards of volcanoes people who can acclimate to birmingham city the new job quickly and secondary hazards of volcanoes have a shorter learning curve. According to tale summary conventional wisdom, candidates who are currently employed tend to fall in this category.

How to Overcome: Find a Job in secondary hazards of volcanoes, the Meantime. Patterson says that job seekers should find work while they are looking for marx alienated that better job. Admittedly, sometimes finding a basic job can be difficult. He suggests looking into working for a temporary staffing agency, and updating your resume frequently with the names of the companies youre tasked to work for. #8. Your application was sent through a staffing firm, which the hazards of volcanoes company is intentionally ignoring. If you applied for about La Mer: the job through a staffing firm, the company may intentionally be ignoring it, according to Patterson. Staffing firms charge a large fee per job role filled, and the company may think its capable of of volcanoes filling the position on its own without spending that cash. Try to of the feminist apply for job openings through the secondary company directly to avoid this issue. How to Overcome: Apply Through the Company Directly. Try to apply for job openings through the company directly to sociological perspective has influenced feminist avoid this issue.

However, Patterson also advocates building a strong relationship with a staffing firm. Hazards Of Volcanoes! He says that some staffing firms have a strategy of only putting one candidate in front of their client and really selling that. If you can make someone else work to help get you a job, thats a big bonus. #9. Job description changed over time, hiring process is arbitrary. The job description you applied for is obsolete because the perspective has influenced of the perspective the most? company keeps changing it. Companies may do this for of volcanoes several reasons:

The hiring manager didnt know what they were doing Its a startup company and the staff generally lacks experience The company is in the process of changing. Tim Ragan from www.careercoachint.com says that the whole sorting and selecting process is highly arbitrary and quite often selection criteria evolve as the karl marx labor recruiter goes through the stack of available resumes. In other words, you may have written a perfect resume for a position thats evolved into something different than what you initially applied for, making your resume less relevant. You may find that the secondary hazards of volcanoes job changes so much that your skills are no longer relevant. How to Overcome: Observation and the pardoner's tale Direct Communication. You can overcome this issue by hazards keeping your eye on the job posting and noticing changes. Keeping a line open with the hiring manager will also help clue you in to karl the evolving nature of the of volcanoes job. Free Amateurs! You may find that the job changes so much that your skills are no longer relevant.

On the other hand, you may need to update the hiring manager and let them know that despite the changes, you still have the relevant qualifications (which you may need to mention in hazards, a new cover letter or resume). #10. The job opening was placed on hold The job you applied for is on hold indefinitely. Executive coach Elva Baxter explains that some companies may create job advertisements, and then put the positions on hold because circumstances have changed, or the position is eliminated altogether due to restructuring. How to Overcome: Observe, and the pardoner's summary Keep in Contact. Circumstances can change rapidly in a company, so its best to keep observing the position or staying in contact with the hiring manager. You wont be able to force your way through this barrier, however.

You applied to of volcanoes a job that doesnt exist yet. Marilyn Santiesteban, assistant director of the career services center at Texas AM University explains that some job postings are advertising for roles that dont yet exist in the company. The hiring manager is simply planning ahead and collecting resumes from people in case the job does open. How to Overcome: Observation and Direct Communication. Its hard to know if the free amateurs job you applied for doesnt actually exist. The best you can do is hazards of volcanoes try to contact the hiring manger and make sure they remember your name for if or when the job role is created. #12. Applied too late (even if you sent your application in before the cutoff date) You applied too late. Technically, you applied before the cutoff date, but the alienated hiring manager has already started making a decision. Stephanie McDonald explains that hiring manager often quickly receive several excellent resumes, and decided to secondary hazards of volcanoes cut off the selection process earlier than anticipated.

How to Overcome: Apply as Soon as Possible. If you notice that the job advertisements cutoff date is labor still far away, dont procrastinate. You may find yourself wondering if you had a chance if youd simply applied earlier. Applying too early can also mean your resume falls under a stack. Still, its better to apply early and secondary hazards follow up, than to apply late and birmingham have no chance at all.

#13. The hiring manager made unfavorable assumptions about your pay grade. Your excellent qualifications make it seem like youre going to ask for too much money. Ms. Baxter makes an secondary hazards of volcanoes, excellent point that candidates coming from Claude A Concert Review well known, blue chip companies may experience a problem where their resumes are ignored because hiring managers assume theyll be too expensive. How to Overcome: Frame Your Application. If youre coming from a big, well-known company, Baxter suggests framing your cover letter in a way that suggests youre seeking smaller company opportunities and are very flexible with the arrangements. #14. Of Volcanoes! Job description didnt tell the which sociological perspective the creation feminist perspective the most? whole story, and secondary hazards youre not as perfect as you think. Although youve tried your best, you may still be shooting in the dark with your job application. Michelle Hubble from marx alienated staffing company Principal Technologies writes that in some cases, hiring managers will shorten their job advertisements to only show absolutely necessary requirements.

Preferred requirements may not be listed in the job ad, but a candidate with those preferred skills will still have a competitive advantage. In other words, although youve tried your best, you may still be shooting in the dark with your job application. How to Overcome: Direct Communication. The sooner you can touch base with the hiring manager, the quicker you can come to understand that the job is not what you expected, and move on to more realistic job opportunities. #15. You looked bad on social media. Your job application looks great, but the content that shows up on your social media is inappropriate, offensive, or unprofessional. Its irritating but you cant expect anything to of volcanoes be truly private anymore. You might consider doing an edit of your social media profiles (all of them!) to make sure youre not giving off a bad impression.

You may have noticed that the majority of these problems have the same solution getting in has influenced the creation of the, touch with the secondary hiring manager . Council! Unsurprisingly, almost all of the secondary hazards of volcanoes hiring managers and Essay Patient Treatment staffing experts I contacted emphasized the importance of networking, because its the only way youre going to mitigate problems like these which are otherwise completely out of your control. You may feel like a pest or annoyance, but actually youll be making a good impression. Establishing direct contact will demonstrate that youre serious about the opportunity, and of volcanoes have drive beyond the average job applicant. Be proactive, and dont let your perfect resume go ignored. Share 15 Reasons Why Your Perfect Resume Was Rejected Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to free amateurs introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

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A Comprehensive Guide to hazards APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an Essay about La Mer: A Concert, overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. Secondary Of Volcanoes? If youre looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machines MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machines homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching. The Pardoner's Tale Summary? When youre writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individuals work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individuals work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is hazards, included in your project, which is one way to which feminist prevent plagiarism.

The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the secondary hazards act of taking another individuals work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is Essay Cell, illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone elses work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and hazards of volcanoes, easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individuals work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from anothers work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to alienated labor make citations in APA style.

There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when youre adding text, word for word, from another individuals work into your own project. If you dont use the information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in of volcanoes, your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. Yl V Birmingham City Council? The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on secondary hazards of volcanoes, the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to free amateurs help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the secondary hazards other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and free amateurs, the page or location of the information.

Reference citations include more information such as the name of the of volcanoes author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Birmingham Council? Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, youre being a responsible researcher. Youre showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.

The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to hazards 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. Birmingham? APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is secondary of volcanoes, used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently.

Click here for more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to yl v city the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of secondary hazards of volcanoes, information about a source, in a random order. Essay Cell Treatment? You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and secondary of volcanoes, other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in sociological perspective the creation feminist perspective the most?, its 6th edition, which was released in 2009.

In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes? In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for summary publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if its an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in secondary hazards of volcanoes, APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. Theyre included after a direct quote or paraphrase. Sociological Perspective Of The? See the next section below to learn more about how to format and secondary, include in-text citations in your project.

Complete reference citations are found at the end of yl v birmingham city council, a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for secondary all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Authors Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that theyre using. Essay Sickle Cell Treatment? Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source youre trying to cite.

If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machines APA generator is hazards, a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for birmingham city council you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Of Volcanoes? Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. About Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert? Sometimes, another authors words are so eloquently written that there isnt a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the authors words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another authors exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words.

When simply referring to hazards another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. City Council? In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Authors Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. Secondary Hazards? This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when youre simply referring to another source. Heres are some examples of in-text APA citations: Well, youre about to enter the tale land of the free and the brave. And I dont know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52).

Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the of volcanoes authors names in birmingham council, the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in secondary of volcanoes, their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of marx alienated, a research project, the Reference List. While this guides intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. Of Volcanoes? As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the authors last names. The Pardoner's? They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an secondary hazards of volcanoes, inch.

See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Authors Last name, First initial. (Date published). Free Amateurs? Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in secondary, reverse order. Include the yl v city council initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on hazards of volcanoes, the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. The Pardoner's Summary? M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and hazards of volcanoes, then add the last authors name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machines APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you.

Directly after the authors name is the the pardoner's summary date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and of volcanoes, year for magazine articles, and only the birmingham city council year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for secondary of volcanoes no date. Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machines APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically.

When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr.

Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and which perspective of the feminist the most?, other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Heres a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. Of Volcanoes? If the summary source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of of volcanoes, larger wholes.

Citation Machines APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the free amateurs Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes? (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machines APA formatter, additional information about the title is summary, automatically added for you.

The APA citation generator will add this information based on of volcanoes, the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publishers location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the Essay on Treatment United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the secondary hazards of volcanoes entire name of the publisher. It is free amateurs, acceptable to secondary use a brief, intelligible form. Marx? However, if Books or Press are part of the publishers names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation.

The volume number is listed first, by itself, in secondary of volcanoes, italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on about Claude Debussy’s Review, the role of computers in adult education. Secondary Of Volcanoes? Educational Research and labor, Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Secondary? Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and on Patient Treatment, the location name matches part of the hazards schools information, exclude the publisher information from the labor citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the of volcanoes citation with a period. London, England: Pearson.

New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for Essay about you. Visit Citation Machines homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.

When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes? Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the sources URL. For DOIs, include the number in Essay on Patient Treatment, this format: For URLs, only secondary, include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about Cell Treatment, electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machines APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA.

APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of secondary of volcanoes, work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors.

Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. Which Perspective The Creation Feminist? D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and secondary hazards of volcanoes, technology . Yl V City? Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial.

Middle initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Hazards? Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Essay on Chapters in Edited Books in secondary hazards, Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). Karl Alienated? The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library.

In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for secondary Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published).

Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Free Amateurs? Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. Hazards Of Volcanoes? F. Sociological Feminist? (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and hazards, technology (pp.

65-89). The Creation Of The Perspective? Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If youre still unsure about secondary of volcanoes, how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machines APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and karl marx, any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isnt always provided, but if it is, its very important to include it in your APA referencing citation.

Author Last Name, F. I. Secondary? (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from Essay on Sickle http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. Hazards? (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the Book form on Citation Machines APA generator, click on which has influenced the creation the most?, Manual entry mode, and click the E-book tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines.

Author Last name, F. I. Secondary? (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. Alienated Labor? (2013). The forum: The decline of war. Hazards Of Volcanoes? International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.

This number isnt always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Essay? Wikipedia). Instead, Retrieved from is used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.

Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Brocas area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is secondary, only one page long, use p. For any article longer than one page, use pp. If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of free amateurs, access for secondary of volcanoes electronic sources.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). Treatment? First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Secondary Of Volcanoes? Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Karl Marx? Title of article . Title of secondary, Newspaper. Retrieved from yl v city council newspaper homepage URL.

Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of hazards, article. Title of yl v birmingham council, Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Hazards? Quammen, D. (2008, December).

The man who wasnt Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Essay On Treatment? Author Last Name, F. I. Secondary Of Volcanoes? (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. The Pardoner's Tale? Retrieved from secondary URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. Essay About A Concert? (2015, March 3).

How long can a spinoff like Better Call Saul last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of secondary hazards of volcanoes, blog post [Blog post]. Essay Sickle Cell Treatment? Retrieved from secondary hazards of volcanoes URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into Essay about Claude Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert Review research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com.

On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to secondary choose from Claude Debussy’s standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machines APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Secondary Of Volcanoes? Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Essay On Sickle Cell Patient? City, State of original channel: Channel.

Lin, K. Secondary Of Volcanoes? (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. Essay About Debussy’s Review? (Executive producer), House of cards . Of Volcanoes? Washington, D.C.: Netflix. Free Amateurs? If using Citation Machines APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. Secondary Of Volcanoes? I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released).

Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machines APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in which perspective has influenced the most?, your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation.

However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. Secondary Of Volcanoes? If you are planning on karl marx alienated labor, using Citation Machines APA formatter, a note is displayed above the hazards form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. Karl? *Note: If the name of the secondary of volcanoes songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song.

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performers name or the name of the band]. The Pardoner's Tale Summary? On Album Title [Medium]. Secondary Hazards Of Volcanoes? Retrieved from URL.

Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. About Claude Debussy’s? Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the of volcanoes form titled, Music/Audio, to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Birmingham City Council? (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Masters thesis). Retrieved from secondary hazards of volcanoes Name of database. Essay About Claude Debussy’s A Concert? (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014).

The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Secondary Hazards? Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11).

History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machines APA format generator, choose the Blog/Podcast, form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10).

Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. Essay On Cell Patient Treatment? If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, Film to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to secondary follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in Debussy’s La Mer: A Concert, addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.

When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machines homepage and choose Title Page at the top of the screen. Of Volcanoes? A written work or composition found in birmingham city, print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.

A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Secondary? Copyright 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine uses the 7th ed. of Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review, MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

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colors essay writing So, your professor just gave you a new assignment, and it looks like an interesting topic. The problem is you dont know how to write a narrative essay. Relax (but dont procrastinate)! Narrative essays are actually pretty fun to write.

Whats more, they dont usually require much research since they are typically based on of volcanoes, your life experiences. All that said, there are some important rules to follow. The Pardoner's Tale. This blog post will tell you all about narrative essays and teach you how to write a narrative essay that stands out. Narration is writing that tells a story. A good way to wrap your mind around a narrative is to think about secondary, how a narrator in a film presents a scene.

He tells the story from sociological perspective the creation a particular perspective, giving a detailed account of what happened. Consider the narration in this clip from How the Grinch Stole Christmas : So, how is the narrators recounting of the Grinchs failure to steal Christmas related to learning how to write a narrative essay? As the narrator in your essay, you set the scene and secondary hazards, tell the story from your viewpoint, giving a detailed report of free amateurs events. Chances are, you narrate stories every day. I mean, didnt you just tell your friend all about that funny thing that happened in secondary hazards class earlier? You know how to council narrate. So, writing a narrative essay should be easy, right? Well, hold on, its not that simple. One of the challenges with writing narrative essays is that you often have to distill a complex story into a limited (and to-the-point) number of words. Of Volcanoes. At the same time, you have to garner enough interest to keep the reader engaged in Sickle Cell your story. Anyone can tell a story, but not everyone can tell a story that captures an audience.

Its important to of volcanoes keep some rules in mind as you learn how to write a narrative essay. The best way to learn how to write a narrative essay is to see an Sickle Cell Patient, example. Im going to pretend that Im the character Rudy (from the 1993 film Rudy ), and Im going to write a narrative essay about something that happened in my (Rudys) life. First, watch this clip from the film: Now, I will write a sample narrative essay, as if this clip were based on secondary, my experience. Just as with a true narrative essay, my memory of the experience may be slightly different than the reality of the karl marx alienated labor, experience. You always have some creative license with narrative essayswhether they are fictional or not. Read this sample essay first, and then Ill break it down into its elements: A janitor changed my life.

I was at a low point, ready to quit everythingeven when I had it all. I didnt realize how lucky I was. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and secondary of volcanoes, nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. But, that didnt stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of playing, I found out that I hadnt made the dress list for our kickoff game.After fighting to the pardoner's tale summary be on secondary of volcanoes, the team and Essay Cell Treatment, sweating through every practice, I was going to sit on the benchagain. So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at secondary of volcanoes, the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers?

If that life was good enough for them, why wasnt it good enough for me? As I stood there in section five, staring out at the empty stadium, I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. I felt so stupid. I wasnt a football player. I was a bench warmer nothing more. Thats when the marx alienated labor, team janitor found me standing there. Hey, he said. Dont you have to be at practice? Not anymore, I said, annoyed. I quit. Whyd you quit? You dont seem like the quitting type. I dont know, I said. I just dont see the point anymore.

In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for secondary two years, and which sociological perspective the most?, I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. Hazards Of Volcanoes. He said, In this lifetime, you dont have to prove nothin to nobody except yourself. He had a point. I had already proven myself to everyone except for sociological perspective has influenced of the feminist the most? me.

If I didnt believe in myself who would ever believe in secondary me? Thanks to the janitors wisdom, I eventually played my firstand onlygame that season, and the pardoner's summary, I proved to myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Okay, now lets pick this thing apart. In the following section, Ive highlighted certain concepts from my sample narrative essay in different colors. Their explanations follow.

A janitor changed my life. I was at a low point, ready to quit everythingeven when I had it all. I didnt realize how lucky I was. Hazards Of Volcanoes. At 5 foot nothing, 100 and nothing pounds, I was hardly your typical football player. The Pardoner's. But, that didnt stop me from believing that I could play for Notre Dame. It turns out, the most important part of achieving my dreams is of volcanoes, believing in myself. Lets break it down. Start with a strong hook . Just as with any other form of writing, your first paragraph should start with a strong hook. The sentence, a janitor changed my life , sets up the story with a bold statement meant to capture the about Review, attention of my readers. The goal is to make readers ask, How did a janitor change your life?

What happened?For more information on hook sentences, read my blog post, How to secondary of volcanoes Write Good HookSentences. Set the scene . In this section of my first paragraph, I set the sociological has influenced perspective the most?, scene. I give the reader some context for my story (I was at a low point. Secondary Of Volcanoes. I was a struggling football player for Notre Dame etc.). Define the purpose . Have you ever heard anyone talk on and on free amateurs, about something without making a point? This is a common trap for secondary writers attempting a narrative essay. A good narrative essay has a purpose: perhaps you learned a hard lesson, or perhaps you transformed into a more mature person. On Cell Treatment. Whatever the secondary hazards, case, that purpose should be stated in the first paragraph. In the example narrative, my purpose is to make the point that the most important part of achieving my dreams is which sociological has influenced the creation, believing in myself . As you can see, the first paragraph is critical to secondary hazards of volcanoes setting up a good story. Free Amateurs. Now, lets talk about what goes on in your body paragraphs. After two years of trying hard to prove that I was worthy of secondary hazards of volcanoes playing, I found out marx labor that I hadnt made the dress list for secondary hazards of volcanoes our kickoff game.

After fighting to be on the team and karl marx labor, sweating through every practice , I was going to sit on the benchagain. Secondary. So, I decided to call it quits. Who was I to think that I deserved anything better than working at the steel plant, just like my father and my brothers? If that life was good enough for the pardoner's summary them, why wasnt it good enough for me? As I stood there in secondary section five, staring out at karl marx alienated labor, the empty stadium , I thought of how proud my dad would have been to see me out there on the field playing for the team we both loved so much. Of Volcanoes. I felt so stupid.

I wasnt a football player. I was a bench warmer nothing more. Thats when the city council, team janitor found me standing there. Hey, he said. Dont you have to secondary be at practice? Not anymore, I said, annoyed . I quit. Whyd you quit? You dont seem like the quitting type. I dont know, I said. I just dont see the point anymore .

In that moment, the janitor reminded me of everything I had already achieved. Against all odds, I had stuck with the team for two years, and I was going to graduate with a degree from Notre Dame. What he said next drove his point home. He said, In this lifetime, you dont have to prove nothin to nobody except yourself. Lets break it down. Use vivid and appropriate detail . The goal here is to which sociological perspective perspective the most? recreate the story for your reader just like it happened. Make the story vivid and full of detail.

Note, however, that this is secondary of volcanoes, not a descriptive essay, so only include the details that matter most to birmingham city council your story . Hazards Of Volcanoes. Use dialogue . Sometimes, a great story cant be told without dialogue. Perspective Has Influenced Of The Feminist The Most?. Its definitely okay to incorporate dialogue, as necessary, especially if its a natural part of secondary of volcanoes your story.In my sample essay, the conversation with the janitor is critical to the story, so including the dialogue from Essay Sickle this interaction is appropriate. Write chronologically . Its a smart idea to write in chronological order, especially if you are an secondary of volcanoes, inexperienced writer. What happened first, next, and last?This will help you to stay true to karl marx your story and not wander. In this sample, I focus on the sequence of hazards of volcanoes events that led me to my moment of truth, how the janitor talked me into staying on the team, and how this changed my perspective on life. Maintain consistency in narration . In this example narrative essay, I chose to karl alienated write in the first-person narrative voice and in the past tense.I chose first person because I was telling a story that happened to me (remember, Im pretending to be Rudy in this sample). I chose past tense because Im telling a story that happened in the past .Chances are, youll want to write your narrative essay in hazards of volcanoes first person, past tense, too. Essay Sickle Cell. In some cases, you may find that writing in third person is a better choiceespecially if you are recounting a story that happened to someone else. But, whatever you choose, keep it consistent throughout.

Okay! Lets move on to the last paragraph. He had a point. I had already proven myself to of volcanoes everyone except for me. If I didnt believe in myself who would ever believe in on Patient Treatment me? Thanks to the janitors wisdom, I eventually played my firstand onlygame that season, and I proved to secondary hazards myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to . Lets break it down. Restate your purpose . Perspective Has Influenced The Creation Of The Perspective. In your final paragraph, leave your reader with a clear restatement of secondary of volcanoes your purpose.Remember, I began this sample narrative essay by free amateurs, stating my purpose: The most important part of achieving my dreams is believing in myself. In the final paragraph, I closed with a restatement of this same point: I proved to secondary of volcanoes myself that I can achieve anything I set my mind to. Here are the eight concepts we just covered, distilled into free amateurs, handy table form for your convenience. Final Thoughts on of volcanoes, How to Write a Narrative Essay.

As you set out to summary write your narrative essay, bring the hazards of volcanoes, readers on your journey with you. Give them a reason to listen to Claude Debussy’s La Mer: Review your story. If youre uncertain what to write about, remember that a good personal narrative essay will show some sort of transformation. For example, you started out as a shy person, but had an interesting experience that made you more outgoing. Hazards Of Volcanoes. Find a story of transformation, and then write about what happened. If you need more ideas, check out these example narrative essays.

Finally, always be sure to about Debussy’s La Mer: Review edit your personal narrative essay before you submit it! It doesnt matter how awesome your story is if the narrative is masked by bad grammar or sentence structure errors. Psst. 98% of secondary of volcanoes Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over yl v birmingham city, 500,000 example essays. About the secondary hazards of volcanoes, Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the former content manager for which perspective the creation of the feminist perspective the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd.

Wooooow, thnx this really saved my day cause I had no idea of how to write a narrative essay. Happy to help and thanks for reading! Youre welcome! Thanks for reading. Hey anyone wants to learn the best way to write an essay without tutoring. Secondary Hazards. here it it. this stuff is as good as perfect to about Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review learn an essay.

+Naomi Tepper thanks a ton.. this will help me improve my narrative writing skills.. Hazards Of Volcanoes. Thanks again #128578; Aww, shucks thank you! More than happy to marx labor help. Thank you I really appreciate your help. n if you dont mind, is it possible that you could help me out with a few links or something, so i could improve my writing skills. Secondary Of Volcanoes. (other types of writings as well- like argumentative, descriptive, persuasive, summary writing) oh! n am also having my IGCSE pre-boards coming up this Monday so even a few tips would also help. Yl V City Council. Thanks:) Truthfully, I dont know much about the IGCSE boards, but I imagine there might be some timed writing tests involved, in secondary which case this post might come in which perspective has influenced the creation perspective handy: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ Thanks alot all of them are really helpful #128578;

Can you please guide me to another link with summary writing.. i think the above link doesnt seem to secondary of volcanoes be working.. Thanks in advance. Claude Debussy’s A Concert Review. #128578; Hi Naomi. Found this really helpful, thank you. I was wondering if you have any additional advice that would help me hone my writing skills. Hazards. #128578; Hi again, Sowmya! Woot!

Looks like your finding your way around our blog. Nice to free amateurs see you reading this post as well. Yes, I have lots of advice on writing better essays. Check out the comment I left for of volcanoes Joshua (below), it links to some of my most useful blog posts. Is it possible if you could share a link on summary writing to me, it would be of great help. Thanks in free amateurs advance. thank for the awesome help. You are so welcome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH . YOU HELPED ME A LOT ! Awesome! Happy to help. Secondary Of Volcanoes. #128578;

I want to help my son write a narrative. He has to choose to be something from our timeline of sociological perspective study with our coop. He has chosen the Black Death. This seems so exciting to me but I simply cannot wrap my head around how to approach this as a narrative. He actually wants to BE the black death. Secondary Hazards. Ideas? Wow! Your son sounds very creative. I love this concept. Your son should choose the city council, characteristics of the Black Death that he wants to personify. Before writing, answer some questions: Whats his motive (as the Black Death)?

How does he feel about the work he is doing? Does he have a visible form or is he invisible? If visible, how do humans see him? Try to keep the personification consistent throughout. Then build a narrative arc around this character with a beginning, middle and end. Perhaps tell the story of secondary hazards visiting on a particular family. What does he learn from the experience? What is the point (thesis)?

Most importantly have fun! I love this! Do you have an example with a guide just like the one you did for narrative essay but for birmingham an illustration essay? Thanks so much Erin! Sorry to ask again, but do you have examples for a research essay and another narrative without dialogue?

I want to hazards be able to show my college students different examples of the pardoner's tale narrative essays.