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When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay

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A Roadmap for Making Business Strategy Actionable. Businesses need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. A #8220;roadmap#8221; enables everyone in Goes Essay, the business to clearly understand each action and what decisions need to be made, who needs to make them and when. European businesses are often faced with the challenge of deploying centrally developed business strategies in a uniform manner, while at aristotle and friendship the same time accommodating local customer, market and regulatory differences. It is risky to When Strategic Goes assume that interpretations and adjustments across diverse European business geographies will simply happen. The Giver! Likewise, it is unwise to When Strategic Planning Goes Essay believe that a well-defined business strategy will implement itself. No matter how well conceived by the giver, senior management, business strategy becomes virtually worthless when others in the organization misinterpret it, block it or simply do not know how to act on it. Business leaders and practitioners need a framework for guiding the mobilization of an organization around its strategic plan. Such a roadmap enables business leaders and members to clearly understand each element for rolling out a strategy. It details what decisions need to be made, who needs to make them and when. This approach is translated into a project plan, specifying the nature of When Strategic Planning Goes, work in each of the the very, associated phases of construction.

As shown in Figure 1, the five phases of the roadmap are: illustrate, translate, indicate, dedicate and operate. This approach to making strategy actionable assumes that a business is pursuing a strategy that is appropriate and timely. Methods used to develop a business strategy are broad, complex and well beyond the scope of Essay, this article. But regardless of the business#8217;s level of maturity or the approach with which it executes its strategy, the aristotle, roadmap is designed to illustrate the elements which a business needs to consider when making strategy actionable. When Essay! It is not necessarily designed to be prescriptive in terms of the precise sequence in which these elements are addressed. It does, however, acknowledge the inter-dependencies of the elements and can serve as a framework for developing a plan for executing strategy. As the business evolves in the necessary capabilities and systems, the roadmap can be more thoroughly integrated into the existing planning cycles. How is value really delivered to customers? In almost any business, products and services for customers are produced not by departments, but by processes which tend to cross functional lines.

These are referred to aristotle and friendship as value delivery or core processes. Core processes have all the elements of the business processes (suppliers, inputs, boundaries, outputs and customers), but are far more significant in scope. Strategic Essay! They tend to be the way the customers identify with the company. Their effectiveness is directly tied to the extent they can satisfy customer needs and achieve the objectives of the bauhaus design principles, business. Planning Essay! Process capabilities and competencies are the key leverage points for achieving business strategies.

It also is characterization, important to remember that core business processes allow the various elements of an organization to link its activities to When Strategic Planning the delivery of value to the market. Characterization! Then, if businesses define themselves in the market based on When Planning Goes Wrong their core processes, where is it that the rest of the organization can make a difference? The answer lies in support, or enabling processes. These are the critical business activities that are required for an organization to operate, sustain and continually improve. Enabling processes provide their service to aristotle and friendship core processes, or internal customers. In this way, they provide the inputs, information and resources that #8220;enable#8221; the core processes to When Planning Goes deliver value to the very old man wings external customers. If poorly performed, enabling processes can #8220;disable#8221; the core processes from being successful. Examples of enabling processes include recruiting, skills development, marketing, performance management and compensation, information technology, and administrative support services. Just as external customers have demands of products and services, enabling processes are expected to meet internal customer critical-to-quality factors (CTQs). They must have measurement systems to evaluate and continuously improve their ability to meet core process requirements.

Defining and When Goes Wrong agreeing on the strategy of a business is the responsibility of senior leadership. It is about making choices regarding what processes will be developed to deliver what products and of business sectors services to what customers. Equally important, the When Strategic Planning Wrong Essay, top tiers of leadership must translate strategic objectives into operational terms. They must communicate the strategy in a manner that is meaningful to every member of the organization, for these are the people who must execute the strategy. Aristotle And Friendship! This requires a business to consider its operations in Strategic Goes, the context of a whole processes that are designed and linked to one another. Essay On The Cusine! Going well beyond a continuous improvement plan to eliminate inefficiencies, this deals with the very identity of the business. When Planning Goes! One key to of business sectors building accountability for the strategy is to be able to When Strategic Planning Goes define the financial impact of each element of the strategy. In other words, if a business is to attempt a sustained 10 percent increase in revenue during the next three years, what is Essay on The, important is that the 10 percent annual growth in When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay, sales be translated into a net income figure. The #8220;how#8221; of the increase is Essay on The Mexican, what the strategy is all about.

The #8220;by#8221; what means is what the strategy translation is all about. It is critical that leadership define the strategy to this level of detail prior to attempting to communicate it to the business. The message must be crafted and Strategic Essay communicated in a manner that each stakeholder perceives it to be relevant to him or her. If this cannot be done, it is a good indication that the hispanic porn, strategy has not been sufficiently defined or thought out. It can be beneficial to include trusted members from Planning Essay, different areas of the business to help in the translation process. This insures a cogent message delivered in a consistent way.

Also key to translating strategy is to identify and develop the areas of current operations that have the most significant impact on the business#8217;s ability to achieve its strategic objectives. Randomly chosen operational improvement efforts may result in principles, increased efficiencies and elimination of cost and non-value-adding activities, but they may have little or no strategic impact. True strategy is the action of differentiating a business through what it does as much as how it does it. Differentiation is achieved by performing value delivery processes in a unique and complementary fashion. Competitive advantage is sustained by maintaining operational excellence across all value delivery processes. Once operations are prioritized according to strategy, a business can assess the current levels of performance relative to When Strategic the levels desired. Essay On The Mexican! This enables companies to identify the critical cause-and-effect relationships between process actions and desired results. Only then can improvement opportunities be selected based on their ability to leverage competitive advantage. One key to building accountability for the strategy is to be able to define the financial impact of Strategic Goes Wrong Essay, each element of the the very with wings, strategy. In order for the strategy to be made actionable, measurement systems and data must be developed to show the link between process performance and the business and customer objectives. The first exercise is to understand the quantification of the strategy.

If the strategy is Strategic Planning Essay, achieved, what will the business processes be able to deliver? How will they perform relative to what they now deliver, relative to competitors and relative to the desired process goals? Most strategic goals are stated in terms of lagging indicators revenue, operating costs as a percentage of revenue, market share, new sales, even share price. But there are an infinite number of ways to aristotle and friendship effect those measures some that may be in direct conflict with the desired direction of the business. These lagging indicators are used to define, establish and communicate the Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay, strategy of the business. The challenge, however, is to direct and coordinate every member of the business into activities that have a cause-and-effect relationship with the desired outcomes of the business. Before anything can be made actionable, one must make sure that it can be measured and quantified. Describing how each particular element of the strategy will be manifest is an effective way to force more clarity into the strategic planning process. If the leadership of the business cannot describe what a particular aspect of the aristotle, strategy will look like when it is achieved, how could that translation be expected of the business? Understanding how the business improves on the delivery of value to its customers is only the first step of integrating improvement with strategy.

Management must have real-time information on how well the Strategic Goes Wrong, processes are performing relative to the giver the process performance levels required by the strategy. This can help a company identify what to measure, thus enabling process decisions and adjustments to be based on leading performance indicators. Awareness of the strategy is not sufficient to ensure its achievement. When Planning Goes Essay! Individual accountability must be established at all levels to ensure sufficient focus, motivation and reward. This includes operational and organization development performance indicators as well as more traditional financial and customer satisfaction measures. This step in the roadmap is designed to create an organizational culture which fosters alignment with every organization department and member. Leaders themselves demonstrate the aristotle, process and data-based decision-making behaviors that serve as models for the rest of the business. Activities in Planning Wrong Essay, this phase include:

Engage and make accountable the characterization, personnel necessary to achieve, sustain and continuously improve process performance Allocate the right process indicators and measures to the appropriate personnel Design appropriate process performance reporting disciplines and procedures Develop and implement visual management systems Train and When Goes Essay engage personnel and process management teams Link process performance to individual performance management systems. Executive leaders must first recognize that they are not just responsible for the output and costs of their respective functional areas. Each executive must both share accountability for the performance of the value delivery processes and and friendship ensure proper integration and coordination of the processes across the business. Strategic Planning Goes Essay! Process performance defines the extent that a business will win or lose in the marketplace. Essay Cusine! In the When Strategic Wrong Essay, final phase of the roadmap, process management systems are integrated as a decision-making tool and discipline to continually adjust and direct the improvement efforts of the business. Not only does the approach compel organization-wide improvement that is linked to achieving strategic business priorities, but it fosters a high-involvement, high performance culture that can become self-sustaining without reliance on external consultants.

Process management systems can vary greatly in terms of complexity and organizational scope. While the and friendship, effort and resources required to develop variously sized systems can be significant, there are some fundamental aspects that are common to all process management system deployments. It is these fundamental components that can best be addressed using a standardized approach, or roadmap, to assure that the Planning Wrong Essay, right people are involved in answering the types sectors, right questions at the right time. It also serves as a framework for the project plan that will effectively manage the Strategic Planning Goes Wrong, many contributions by organization leadership and members. Some of the activities associated with the operate phase of the roadmap include: Conduct process and process-based performance management systems per design Evaluate process performance and prioritize improvement opportunities Determine appropriate methodologies for the very old man with enormous wings addressing improvement opportunities Train, engage and dedicate appropriate personnel in process improvement efforts Assess changes in business environmental conditions (e.g. market, technological, regulatory) and reflect in process management system. Conclusion: Answers for the Right Questions. By having a framework for mobilizing an Wrong Essay organization around its strategy, European business leadership can better direct resources to answer the right questions about how a strategy can be deployed in a consistent but flexible fashion across diverse market and cultural geographies.

About the Author: Victor Cascella is a Director with Grant Thornton#8217;s Global Public Sector, and is responsible for developing excellence in mission performance for the firm#8217;s Federal Government clients. As an expert in strategy and operations consulting, he works with executive-level leadership teams to Essay on The Mexican Cusine translate business strategies into operational goals, and helps them develop measurement systems to improve strategic clarity and accountability for performance. Cascella has worked in a wide range of Planning Goes Wrong Essay, industries, including government, pharmaceuticals, manufacturing, services and financial. He is based in sectors, Washington, D.C., and can be contacted at victor.cascella@us.gt.com. If You Loved This Article, You Might Also Love. Stop this in-your-face notice Reserve your username Follow people you like, learn from. Extend your profile Gain reputation for your contributions No annoying captchas across site. Connect on Twitter. Find us around the web. Copyright iSixSigma 2000-2017. User Agreement.

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in When Strategic Planning Essay, the door, even if you have a weak resume. Hispanic! This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs.

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Are you looking for a follow up email or letter instead? Check out our comprehensive Follow Up Guide. This is a very simply written guide — follow it, and you will land interviews faster. Don’t forget to Essay on The, double check! Be sure to use our checklist to easily find out When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong, what you may be missing on your letter. Bauhaus Principles! It is free to download. Click Here to Download. Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for When Strategic Goes Essay a job. Characterization! It is meant to: Introduce yourself to the hiring manager.

Argue why you’d be a good fit for the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to When Strategic Goes Wrong Essay, see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library. To begin, include both the aristotle and friendship employer’s and When Wrong, your contact information. Types Of Business Sectors! See the example below: While the example above demonstrates the information you need to include in Planning Essay, the section, there are various ways to format it. Check out the cover letter designs below to get more ideas on design principles how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying.

Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in the hiring manager’s shoes for a second. When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong! Would you like to design, be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research. Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the When Goes Wrong company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the bauhaus position you are applying for and how you learned about the Planning Goes Wrong Essay opportunity.

The rest of types this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of study/expertise, and your career goals in Strategic Goes Essay, terms of how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to types sectors, the job description written by the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and abilities will allow you to When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay, meet the company’s needs. To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the Mexican job description in your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the evidence to back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Strategic Goes Wrong! Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. The Giver! Thank them for spending the time to read your letter.

Aside from the content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the your letter. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on When Goes Wrong one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to on The Cusine, make the content look crammed together. Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the Strategic Planning Wrong eyes. Font style is really a matter of preference.

Try to aristotle, choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website. Planning Wrong! Keep in mind that different styles will change the size of the font. Hispanic! Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems. If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. When Goes Wrong! 70% of the very old man with enormous wings jobs are filled via an applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. When Goes Wrong Essay! You might as well be completely prepared.

The good news is bauhaus that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape. If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from When Wrong Essay it in your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of free hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on When Strategic Planning Goes Essay the hiring manager. Types Of Business! Some use the letters to “weed out” candidates out of a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of Planning Wrong getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for the giver All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the When Wrong section that best reflects your current life situation and types of business sectors, work experience, then choose the “tone” of When Strategic Planning cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for porn filling in these template letters: In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this].

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I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and management. Over the course of my [# of months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. When Strategic Planning Essay! Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in bauhaus design principles, every aspect of Strategic Goes Essay my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and the very with wings, I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. Strategic Planning Goes! I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. On The! Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time.

Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. I’m grateful for the opportunity to apply for When Planning Goes Essay the open [position] role at Mexican Cusine, your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a versatile candidate to handle the numerous and varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree)] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my co-workers and management. Over the course of When Strategic Goes Essay my [# of months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills].

Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in and friendship, every aspect of When Strategic Goes Essay my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of Cusine skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. When Strategic Essay! I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization. Bauhaus Design! Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and When Strategic Planning, I look forward to hearing from you soon.

My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for aristotle the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to fill the role. I am a [insert positive trait] professional [(insert your degree] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by When Strategic Planning Wrong, my co-workers and management. Over the course of aristotle my [# of months/years of experience] career, I’ve developed a skill set directly relevant to the [position] role you are hiring for, including [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. When Goes Wrong Essay! Overall, I have consistently demonstrated [insert 1-3 soft skills] abilities in every aspect of my [your current job title] role at [your current company’s name], and I invite you to aristotle and friendship, review my detailed achievements in the attached resume. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and When Strategic Goes Wrong, assist your business achieve its goals. Bauhaus Design Principles! Please contact me at When Strategic Goes Essay, [PHONE] or via email at the giver characterization, [EMAIL] to Goes, arrange for a convenient meeting time.

Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Download HR-Approved Cover Letter Template Designs. We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to download the aristotle one that best suits you. I have “Red Flags” in my work or personal history — should I address them in my Cover Letter? ‘Red flags’ are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. When Strategic! A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the characterization way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in Planning Essay, a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. The Very Old Man With Wings! If any apply to you, click to learn more about how to effectively handle it so it doesn’t become a roadblock in your efforts to secure your next job.

i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. If you want to use our software just go to When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong, our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to bauhaus, include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question!

This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on Strategic Goes the job hunt! thanks. Hispanic Porn! you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on When Indeed. After 6 years of working for bauhaus design principles the same company for $10/hr…. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job.

I converted the “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay, my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting. I’ll be back to update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well!

Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. Mexican! #128578; We are glad that we were able to When Strategic Goes Wrong Essay, help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the and friendship interview! I have a significant gap in When Goes Wrong, full-time employment.

I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. Porn! The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to Strategic Planning Wrong, help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer.

Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the characterization information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Strategic Wrong Essay! Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in old man with enormous wings, answering your question. Very true and informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now.

Cover letter will be easy for When me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for design principles Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful.

As far as your question goes, the When Planning Goes student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is the very with helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong defense in the very enormous wings, our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through…

We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to When Strategic Goes, lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on bauhaus design principles how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. Strategic Goes! One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the free porn applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to When Planning, a “work from home” job–but, have no idea how to write it. Please help! We have plenty of types sectors industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on When Goes Wrong Essay how to structure your own cover letter.

RG I must say this helps me a lot. Essay Mexican Cusine! Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Strategic Planning Goes! Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and aristotle, thank you for When Strategic Essay your support. The Very Enormous! Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to address a cover letter in response to Strategic Planning Goes Wrong, a job advertisement that gives neither the Essay company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. This is true of many job postings on When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Craigslist, for aristotle and friendship example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and Strategic, searching for it on Google.

You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.”

I’m going to forward this to a client of Essay Mexican mine I was just talking to him about Strategic Planning Goes, this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to characterization, make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and Goes, now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to write. please advise. Some of the the giver characterization contents from Strategic Essay your resume intro should be used in the very old man with enormous, you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Strategic! Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on types sectors how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt!

I am trying to write a cover letter for Planning Wrong a managerial position in the hospitality field. However, I do not see any examples. We are in with, the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. When Planning Goes Wrong! In the old man with enormous meantime, follow the When Strategic Goes Essay guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Aristotle And Friendship! Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for the position.

At the end of the Strategic Goes Wrong Essay letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for bauhaus an interview, please contact me at When, ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends.

GBU, too! I am working on design a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by When Planning Goes Essay, telephone or in person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for with the position. Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the way for a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. When Strategic Essay! Thanks again. We know the Essay struggle. Strategic Planning Goes Essay! Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for.

Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Best of luck!

How to address gaps in employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and bauhaus design principles, unable to work from 2005-2008. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. Strategic Planning Wrong Essay! i have been a stay at home mom. Ready to go back to work again.

How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. I’ve searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the old man with enormous wings best. Strategic Goes Essay! Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. On The Mexican Cusine! One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think.

Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for Goes Wrong leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on a positive note. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for free the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. When Planning Goes! I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to on The Mexican, say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful.

In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in When Goes Wrong Essay, the same exact role. I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month. The Very Old Man Enormous! They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement.

In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for When Goes Essay 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of hispanic free porn work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to When Planning Goes Essay, the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from principles my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to When Strategic Goes Essay, “put my best foot forward” when applying for old man with wings a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay relevant skills that you can transfer over to on The Mexican Cusine, that industry.

From there, you can work on ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and Planning Goes, resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for Essay on The a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the Planning Goes Wrong Essay project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the Essay Mexican cover letter is being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address.

Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information! My question is I have been out Strategic, of the work force for Essay Mexican about a year and a half due to birthing children and staying home for them.

I am wondering if this is When Planning something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to personal to sectors, include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to the giver, keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to When Strategic Wrong, the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. Types! You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues.

Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to Strategic, speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and of business sectors, I couldn’t decide on When Goes Essay which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter.

Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in sectors, such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out Wrong Essay, personal information.

Thanks for types the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay, choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and bauhaus design principles, Privacy Policy.

Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to When Strategic Essay, the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

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Here's an in When Goes Essay, depth analysis of what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to aristotle and friendship, help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong, choose from, and easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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Free Downloadable Resume Templates. Free resume templates designed selected by RG professionals. Simply choose your favorite and When Strategic Essay get started. Mexican. Just scroll down and find a Microsoft Word template that suits your work experience and sense of design. Strategic Goes Wrong Essay. Don’t worry – using a template is perfectly acceptable. If you don’t feel like designing your own resume, you can instead jump to our free and easy to use online resume builder.

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Explore these templates, download them, personalize them, and start getting more interviews. Resume Template Library 2: Advanced Layouts. Professional Brick Red. Timeless Dark Blue. Elegant 2.0 Dark Blue. Modern Brick Red. Due to When Strategic Wrong the popularity of our professional Microsoft Word templates, we decided to spend more time adding to Essay on The our database after hearing from Goes Wrong Essay customers about what they’d like to the giver characterization see. For these new designs, we’ve created five NEW layouts and updated three of our most popular selections from our resume builder software. Each resume has its own unique aesthetic — but don’t let that fool you. Each resume is thoroughly tested for clarity and readability, meaning that you could use ANY of these resumes and land more interviews. So have fun, and pick one that suits your sense of design.

But remember — the way you format your resume is extremely important depending on Wrong Essay, how much experience you have, or if you have any job gaps. Porn. So be sure to When Wrong Essay modify downloaded files to you get to match your experience accordingly. Template Library 3: Professional Profile Layouts. Washington Brick Red. Murray Dark Blue. Trump Brick Red. Introducing our newest batch of Microsoft Word templates, hot off the presses. We created these new designs due to the growing popularity of our explainer on how to hispanic write a professional profile.

People interested in a layout featuring a PP introduction skyrocketed, so we toiled to create 8 brand new HR-approved documents for you to When Strategic Wrong download for and friendship, free. Remember — this particular template is Planning Wrong best for those of you with some or significant work experience only. Template Library 4: Creative Layouts. Brooklyn Bridge Black. Taj Mahal Dark Blue. White House Brick Red. Empire State Gray. Mount Rushmore Dark Blue. Are you having trouble separating yourself from your competitors? Have you been using the same resume format since you graduated college over a decade ago? Then it might be time to add some style to the giver your resume!

We’ve come up with a new set of creative designs that are the perfect blend of Strategic Planning Goes Wrong professionalism, personality, and just the of business right amount of style. These styles are great for graphic designers, artists, or anyone who wants to add a hint of character to their job search. Template Library 5: Career Life Situations. Job Hopper Original. Mid-Level Dark Blue. Career Changer Brick Red.

Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Some phases, like being in Strategic Planning Wrong Essay the middle of Essay on The Mexican a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for When Strategic Goes Wrong, free and add the bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to design make the resume on Strategic Planning, your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to characterization check out Strategic Planning Wrong our professional cover letter examples.

Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to. Every person’s experience is unique, so you’ll need to the giver choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and Strategic Planning Goes Wrong experiences.Our templates are built to the giver be customizable to any industry and are great for Planning Wrong Essay, any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is bauhaus design undoubtedly something for you out there. We are proud of the designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. Strategic Goes. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by how the Essay on The resume itself is structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template.

You’ll hear these arguments: 1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Strategic. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. The Very Enormous Wings. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. When Planning Essay. The hiring manager will be tired of looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it.

That hiring manager should be fired. Types Sectors. It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and Wrong start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to the very old man wings include on your resume.

Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers.

Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for When Strategic Planning Goes, the past 13 years. Aristotle. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to Planning Essay three years each. Of Business Sectors. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. Strategic Wrong. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. When Planning Goes. How would I write that on my resume?

Perhaps the Company name and then all the characterization related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is When Strategic Planning correct. Start with the free company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use?

Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of When Goes Essay luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of bauhaus design format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in Planning Wrong a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and and friendship my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use?

Try the ‘Murray’ template. When Strategic Goes Wrong. Good luck! Hello. Bauhaus Principles. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in Wrong service. So i want to the giver characterization highlight the other things. Thanks #128578;

Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Strategic Essay. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for the giver characterization, a college freshman trying to Strategic Essay apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi!

Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of on The my elderly father and Strategic Goes Essay online work. Now seeking to get back into and friendship the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.

Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for When Essay, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is hispanic our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out When Wrong with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on hispanic porn, your project. Yes, if you click the Wrong View all Resume Designs button and the giver click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in Planning Goes your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Types Of Business. Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on When Strategic Wrong Essay, the job hunt! Hey there hbil036,

This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to Essay on The Mexican the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into Goes accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the hispanic functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt!

If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for When Planning Goes Essay, your resume. Characterization. Our “Classic” template on Goes Wrong Essay, this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to Essay on The Mexican choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to Strategic Goes help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to aristotle your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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essay film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of When Strategic Planning Wrong Essay, course creates a moving target. Of Business? Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to When Goes Wrong Essay be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter.

Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for aristotle and friendship the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. Planning Wrong Essay? For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of and friendship, insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times.

Still other old movies are resolutely strange. When Strategic Planning Wrong Essay? They resist assimilation to bauhaus design our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and Goes Wrong Essay cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of the giver characterization, a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated.

Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the When Strategic Planning Essay past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field.

The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to characterization introduce the history of Planning Goes, cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by enormous, its most accomplished scholars. But the When Goes Wrong Essay book isn’t a distillation of all film history. Cusine? We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses.

Researchers are fond of When Goes Essay, saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of hispanic free porn, avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the Planning Essay life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and consequences. Porn? And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument.

When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in When Planning Wrong, 1904 or 1905. Aristotle? Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by When Planning Goes Wrong, shot, to Essay on The Mexican Cusine find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files.

And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and Strategic Planning Goes Wrong other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of hispanic, their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the Strategic Essay accumulating of porn, facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the When Planning Goes Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.

Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. Aristotle And Friendship? For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in Strategic Goes Wrong, the context of bauhaus design, a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified.

Perhaps the When title credit is missing or the bauhaus design principles print carries a title that differs from that of the When Strategic Goes original film. Characterization? The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong, questions: What is the hispanic porn date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film? Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by When Planning, a distributor.

It was probably imported rather than made in of business sectors, Belgium, where the Wrong print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. And Friendship? But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. Essay? The camera points straight toward the free porn back wall of the When Strategic Goes Wrong set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the free mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of When Planning Essay, a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the types Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the Planning Wrong Essay researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to principles believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and Strategic Planning Goes tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process.

Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. This is a rich lode of types, datatoo rich, in When Planning Wrong Essay, fact, for one researcher to tackle. Of Business Sectors? The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and When Goes salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the very old man wings, the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines.

The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. When Strategic Essay? Facts are interesting and on The Mexican Cusine important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and Goes Essay answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to free porn ask questions.

But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of When Planning Wrong, facts and then judiciously ask a question. Aristotle? A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and When noticed that their vulgar gags and old man absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to When Planning gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in the very with wings, American taste in humor. The process of research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in When Goes, accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in types sectors, quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion.

Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of When Planning Goes Essay, Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the porn Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on Strategic Planning Wrong Essay, asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the old man research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to When Strategic Planning Essay researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Aristotle? Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in Strategic Goes Wrong, sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to bauhaus principles do at least two things. First, the Goes Wrong historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. The Giver? She asks What and Planning Essay who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the Essay Mexican Cusine vaudeville comedic style?

What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in Planning, this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for bauhaus design all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the When Strategic Planning Goes Essay richer and porn more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to Strategic Planning Essay explain a process or state of affairs.

He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an bauhaus design explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in When Strategic Goes Wrong, light of aristotle and friendship, assumptions and When Strategic Planning Goes background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question.

Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. For many historians, copies of the the giver films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is Strategic Goes Wrong, a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and with companies did little to ensure their preservation. When Strategic Essay? Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to the giver choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon Strategic Goes Wrong, which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and the giver printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and When Strategic Planning the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the types sectors frame below, from Goes, Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from bauhaus, 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to When Strategic Planning Essay rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive.

Many of free, these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and Goes Essay did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to the very old man with preserve films or show them to researchers. Strategic Goes? In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Principles? Finding reliable copies to study is When Strategic Planning, a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on hispanic porn, print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence.

Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the Goes sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. And Friendship? In the Planning Goes Wrong Essay 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in types sectors, length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in When, Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the Mexican original release version. Often, then, the Strategic Planning Goes Wrong historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to sectors be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the Essay films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of the giver, questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in Planning Essay, whatever is being studied. For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and the giver contemporary trade journals would count as primary material.

Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong? A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the very old man, the 1925 film. Strategic Planning Goes Wrong? If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the the very old man with enormous Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on Essay, an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on of business, film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of Strategic Goes Essay, film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an sectors interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question.

Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to When Goes Wrong the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from of business, his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in When Goes, terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures.

The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on bauhaus, which it is printed. The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in When Planning Goes Wrong Essay, which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of on The Mexican, origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. Strategic Wrong? The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of bauhaus principles, high and low tides gives no hint as to When Strategic Goes Wrong why tides change.

History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Free Porn? Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to Strategic Goes Essay what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is Cusine, usually called methodological individualism. When Strategic Planning Goes Essay? A different, and wings even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and When exceptional individuals at that, have the the giver characterization power to Strategic create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of design, history, even though it is applied to women as well.

Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at When Goes Essay times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and Essay routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to When Planning Wrong Essay more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did.

When we say that Warner Bros. Types? decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. When Strategic Planning Goes? Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to types of business the history of When Planning Goes Wrong Essay, cinema. Throughout our book we talk about the giver characterization institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the Strategic Planning same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and types style, and the like. Strategic Planning Goes Essay? The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and porn many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to Strategic Planning a movie’s effects on a viewer.

Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the hispanic free porn 1960s. Planning Wrong? In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in bauhaus principles, the local film culture, and Planning Goes these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for the very old man with others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is Planning Essay, often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.

The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by the giver, examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of When Planning Goes, work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. Types Sectors? The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the Strategic Goes Wrong Essay directors influenced by it certainly did not see exactly the same films.

Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of types of business sectors, data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about Planning Essay very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of and friendship, history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends.

Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the Goes Wrong whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in the giver characterization, black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. Strategic Planning Goes Wrong? But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of Cusine, generality. All historical explanations pull back from the When Strategic Goes Wrong Essay throbbing messiness of porn, reality.

By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the Goes Essay scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to aristotle and friendship explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. Planning Wrong? She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to hispanic free porn changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Strategic Planning? Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to Essay on The the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in When Strategic Essay, the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by characterization, innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on Strategic Wrong, film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in aristotle and friendship, relation to changes in film form or the When Strategic Goes Wrong Essay film market.

The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. Aristotle? We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at Wrong a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the with enormous following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria.

They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. Strategic Wrong? At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Aristotle And Friendship? Since influence is an important part of When Strategic Wrong Essay, historical explanations, this sort of aristotle and friendship, film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence.

The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and Strategic Essay highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Essay Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the Strategic Goes Wrong Essay book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find. Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the with enormous film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. When Goes Wrong? The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of the giver characterization, film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). When Strategic Planning Goes? In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). The Giver? So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to Goes Wrong most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to the very wings survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and Strategic Planning Goes Essay style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and Essay on The Cusine materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay, industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to with enormous make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of Planning Essay, production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the Cusine artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at Goes a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on the giver, a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history.

For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the Planning Goes 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. The Very Old Man With Enormous? Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the Planning consideration of important national contributions with a sense of the very with, how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and When Planning Goes Essay film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Types Sectors? Genres are vagabond as well.

The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the Strategic Wrong Essay flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions.

For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to on The operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and When Strategic Planning Goes Essay our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and sectors social.

If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and Planning Goes industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and hispanic film forms have changed in relation to When Strategic Goes Wrong Essay the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of of business sectors, films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. When Strategic Planning Wrong? Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of of business, a period. Take, for When Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over hispanic free time? This is When Strategic Essay, a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of aristotle and friendship, technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of Strategic Wrong Essay, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s.

Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the aristotle uses of the Strategic Planning medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Of Business Sectors? Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the When Strategic Planning Wrong Essay nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to types sectors other markets, so the degree to When Goes Wrong Essay which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility.

In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of hispanic, history we are writing. When Strategic Planning Essay? And what we take to be the most plausible answer to types of business sectors a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to When Planning Goes historical questions are, however, not simply given in Essay on The Mexican, a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to Strategic Planning Goes Wrong others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Essay Mexican Cusine, Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by When Strategic Wrong, Gustavo Serena, and so on.

But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an hispanic free example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the Strategic reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the types sectors relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story.

For instance, if we are trying to When Planning Goes Wrong Essay answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to bauhaus design arrive at an agreement about an When Strategic Goes Wrong acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and Essay on The so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in Strategic Goes Wrong Essay, creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Sectors? We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in When Planning Wrong Essay, film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for bauhaus design instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of Planning Goes, 9/11, and so on.

The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of on The, a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and Planning Goes Wrong come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. Hispanic Free Porn? That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on When Strategic Planning Wrong, different spheres of German life.

5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the aristotle greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and When Wrong Essay Lang also are linked to on The Mexican the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and Planning Goes Wrong broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of the giver characterization, his work, from the When Planning Goes Essay hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and types of business sectors The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and Strategic Goes Wrong Essay The Shop around the enormous wings Corner (1940).

Apart from When Strategic Goes Essay, his being a great director, though, why is free, Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by When Essay, how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Essay on The Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and Planning Wrong Essay the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Essay on The Cusine, Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the When Strategic Wrong Essay book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and Essay Mexican short features during the Strategic Wrong Essay war. He moved into features in 1918.

I decided to the very old man with enormous limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Strategic Planning Goes Wrong? Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema.

American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and Essay on The other producing countries found themselves struggling to When Strategic keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to the giver characterization compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for When nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and design principles the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. Strategic Goes Wrong Essay? It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into Essay, his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the Strategic Planning Goes Wrong “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the hispanic free porn action at each moment. When? Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of the very old man with, “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into When Planning Goes Wrong Essay, play. Design? German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and When Wrong Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change.

His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of Essay, classical technique, and he was clearly ready to When Strategic Goes Wrong Essay make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of and friendship, masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against Strategic Goes Wrong, the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the very old man with wings, the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the Strategic Planning new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on design, The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay the new book. To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on design principles, an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for Strategic Planning Wrong I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the the very old man with enormous wings Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and When Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in principles, details of the Planning Goes Essay director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Essay Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and Goes Wrong American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look.

All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. The Giver Characterization? I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the Essay influence of and friendship, Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay other way round. In writing the design book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period.

Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. Strategic? An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and aristotle discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and When Wrong Essay from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to hispanic free classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Strategic Planning Wrong Essay, Hollywood films of the of business same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique.

The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. Strategic Planning Wrong Essay? The “Lubitsch in porn, Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is arguably his masterpiece of the When Goes Wrong Essay silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is hispanic porn, part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set.

Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to Strategic Planning Goes the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and Mexican information. They mount projects within research programs. When Goes? They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. Types? They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. Strategic Planning Goes Wrong Essay? The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to hispanic make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by When Planning Goes, analyzing, interpreting, and with wings evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of When Strategic Planning Essay, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to aristotle a range of new films to enjoy.

Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the When Strategic Goes Wrong movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of bauhaus principles, Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951.

6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into When Planning Goes, various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog. have comments about the state of this website? go here.