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Piero da vinci

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butcher resume Cypress , CA. Da Vinci. 90630-0702. With over 20 years of ORACLE experience and over 10 years of DBA experience, in both Web and model definition networked client/server environments, I can provide DBA, Development, Design, Project Management and piero da vinci Unix Administration skills that are especially valuable to butler, companies using ORACLE and Unix. My mentoring and management skills provide additional value by piero da vinci providing training and guidance to technical and of the mind non-technical team members . Sep 2015 to Present: Oracle DBA/Developer contracted to Crescent Solutions, Burbank, CA. (REMOTE) Performed DBA duties included monitoring OLTP systems for E-Business Suite (EBS 12.1) and in-house applications, Data Guard, participating in On-Call rotation, working with QA/Development team members, adding indexes and piero da vinci Materialized Views to improve application performance, resolving Service Desk tickets, adding/removing EBS users and roles, promoting code releases between Dev/Test/UAT/Production, executing SQL fixes for Production data. Additional duties include developing a web based Self-Service application allowing QA/Analysts/Developers to move data/files between systems as needed.

Development of Oracle PL/SQL procedures/packages, BASH, Perl, Python scripting, jQuery UI web pages, EM-CLI Jython OEM Job scripting. Setting up Oracle and PostgreSQL databases on AWS using EC2 and film title RDS. Jan 2012 to piero, Sep 2015 : DBA/Developer with in felix Carlsbad, CA. (successfully worked over piero, 3 years REMOTE) Performed DBA duties included hot and cold RMAN backups. Inelligence Essay. Additional duties include developing and releasing DB and web code from Dev to Test to Production, providing data models and DB documentation, providing Production support including database changes in support of the Sicomm B2B ( and G2B web-based application, providing Linux administration, including NTP, DNS, and NAGIOS activities. (iPlanet app server with Perl cgi and piero Server-Side Javascript) Worked closely with Vendor and why music education be cut from schools Agency Support Staff to resolve technical issues, including creating reports with Embedded PL/SQL Gateway (EPG), JasperSoft, Toad, and piero Oracle Forms(10gDS). Installed Wordpress and setup initial site pages. Frankenstein. ( Moved Oracle database from local host to Amazon Cloud EC2 servers installing Oracle 12c on Enterprise Linux (also moved NFS server) Moved Oracle database from local host to piero da vinci, vCloud Air servers installing Oracle 12c on Ubuntu Linux (also moved NFS server) Developed PL/SQL stored packages, triggers, etc. in support of in essay web applications, including System/Web Testing, Quality Review, and release mgt.

Converted standalone ASP/SqlServer based application to integrated Oracle/iPlanet, including System/Web Testing (eCatalog) Insured database quality by adding auditing triggers, tables, additional keys, and practicing Quality Control Activities. Supported Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), including test environment management and test execution and closure. Strong analytical and problem solving skills. Da Vinci. Worked with node.js using oracledb npm module and angular.js. Feb 2011 to Oct 2011 : Senior DBA with CSC in Norco , CA . Sunshine Mind Rated. Performed DBA duties included hot and cold backups using RMAN and shell scripts, SQL Loader, Export/Import, SQL Plus, recovery management, tuning, Data Guard, database migration from 10g to 11g, on-line reorg, etc. Oracle Forms (10gDS), ERWIN, VSS, and Toad. Additional duties include administering ORACLE 11g classified and unclassified datamart/warehouse on Windows servers, releasing Stored Procedures and DDL from Dev to Test to Production following CM controls, assisting Product Development with all aspects of the Development Life Cycle including coding and review of stored procedures (PL/SQL), materialized views, SQL tuning, issue investigation, etc., development of da vinci audit procedures and sunshine supporting database auditing reports.

Providing Logical and Physical Modeling using Erwin and release management using Visual Source Save. Development of ETL processes using PL/SQL. Jan 2005 to Feb 2011: Oracle Production DBA (80% DBA/10% Designer/10% Development) with Ceridian Tax Services of Fountain Valley , CA. Usual DBA duties included hot and cold backups using RMAN and da vinci shell scripts, SQL Loader, Export/Import, SQL Plus, recovery management, tuning, Data Guard, database migration from 8i to 9i to 10g, on-line reorg, etc. Oracle Enterprise Manager, Oracle Advanced Security, Oracle Forms/Reports (10gDS), Spotlight, Quest Central, Toad, FogLight and SharePlex. Additional duties include administering ORACLE 10g/9i/8i datamart on HPUX/Win2K servers, releasing Stored Procedures and DDL from Dev to Test to eternal, Production following CM controls, assisting Product Development with all aspects of the Development Life Cycle including coding and review of stored procedures (PL/SQL, Java), materialized views, SQL tuning, issue investigation, etc., development of SOX/SAS-70 procedures and supporting database auditing reports. Implementing Disaster Recovery procedures and geographically separate site, Services Management, ITIL (Foundation), Service Desk, and 6-Sigma. Providing Logical and Physical Modeling using Oracle Designer 10g and PowerDesigner. Implemention of data partitioning and data archiving automation. Piero Da Vinci. Support of COTS products such as Appworx and Business Objects. Frankenstein. Participating in on-call rotation, project and time tracking using PlanView, weekly status reporting, and virtual elimination of unplanned database downtime.

Development and da vinci deployment of Web Services and ETL processes using PL/SQL stored procedures, JDeveloper, and WebMethods. (12TB payroll data warehouse) Worked with on-shore and off-shore teams. Lead DBA in 3 member team. Supported Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and why music education should from Information Technology Lifecycle Management (ITIL) Designed and da vinci created test data, executed test cases, logged defects, managed defect resolution, ensured reproducible and verifiable results. Assisted with Use/Test Case development, execution, and closure; Provided strong analytical and problem solving skills. Butler. Provide Quality Control Activities, such as database integrity, verify data criteria, consistency, processing movement, and completeness. Piero Da Vinci. Aug 2004 to education from, Jan 2005 : Oracle Developer (10% DBA /90% Developer) with UBC of Las Vegas, NV.(a This position involved working with other project DBAs and Developers, logical and piero physical design using Designer 9i/10g and butler model definition Erwin, and piero coding of education should be cut stored procedures (PL/SQL and Java), and XML/XSLT. Move Stored Procedures from Dev to Test to Production. Piero Da Vinci. Develop Reports and Forms using 10gDS. Administer 10g Application Server.

Source code management using CVS. Apr 2001 to why music should, May 2004 : Oracle DBA (70% DBA /30% Designer/Developer) with Toyota Motor Sales of Torrance, CA.(a This position involved administration of ORACLE 9i/8i datamart on HPUX and Win2K servers, working with other project DBAs, logical and physical design using Designer 9i/6i and piero da vinci Erwin, change management of both code and models , development of physical and logical standards documents, and coding of why music should be cut stored procedures (PL/SQL and Java), DB2, MS SqlServer, XML/XSLT, and Informatica. Oracle DBA duties included hot and cold backups using RMAN and shell scripts, SQL Loader, Export/Import, SQL Plus, recovery management, tuning, database migration from piero, 8i to 9i, etc. Film In Essay. The Toyota Order Management System (TOMS), including working with ADO/COM+ programmers and piero tuning n-tier applications. Data uploads and downloads nightly between various systems, including migrating data from model, SqlServer, DB2 (mainframe), and other applications. Project and time tracking using Niku. Developed extensive PL/SQL stored procedures, functions, packages, triggers, object views, object types, including PL/SQL server pages (PSP) Created tables, indexes, views, materialized views, including range partitioned tables and indexes. Da Vinci. Developed in-house encrypt/decrypt database function in between Java for application level security. Developed extensive HP Unix shell scripts, including Perl and Oracle Forms using 9iAS , for DBA activities: automating development and testing schema level refreshes (also converted FORMS from 6i to 9i)

Tuned SQL and PL/SQL for max performance, including extensive DBA and Architectural problem solving, replacing looping with Bulk Collections, use of temporary tables, and Statspack. Performed code reviews on backend and middle tier VB code. Use of ClearCase for piero source code management, Oracle Designer/SCM for models, and title in essay ClearQuest for defect tracking and call tracking. Jun 1997 to Apr 2001 : Director of Database Services with Interactive Search of Los Angeles, CA.(a This position involves administration of ORACLE 8i,8.0,7.3 Databases and ORACLE WEB Server (providing Internet data services) including installation, configuration, and da vinci upgrades of both host and client software components. Additional duties involve management of 8 Sun SparcServers, 8 Alpha-based, 8 Intel/NT, and between and leader 1 HP Unix (HP OpenView) database servers including client/server technology involving TCP/IP on da vinci, Intel PCs and NT workstations. Frankenstein. Oracle DBA duties included hot and cold backups using RMAN and shell scripts, SQL Loader, Export/Import, SQL Plus, recovery management, tuning, etc.

Besides DBA, sys admin, and management duties, this position also required heavy involvement in the day-to-day operations, design, and development efforts, including coding of da vinci stored procedures and developing applications written in why music education should be cut from schools WebDB and PL/SQL Server Pages. Management of DBA team for 24x7 coverage. Management of development team producing custom reports. SQL*NET and configuration of Programmer/2000 (Pro*C), Designer/2000, Developer/2000, and applications on da vinci, user and difference between manager developer machines. Database Design and da vinci configuration/change management, including release management from development to test and into production. Why Music Schools. Implemented standards documents. Built PL/SQL modules to support business processes and replication. Working with Product Management and Engineering to meet company goals and deadlines. Da Vinci. Administered code reviews for Engineerings CGI applications. Why Music. Additionally, this position requires knowledge of ORACLE#39;s Context Text Server, (InterMedia) providing full-text indexing and retrieval of the clients#39; data, consisting of over 1600 GB (1.6 TeraBytes) of disk space.

Project started with Oracle 7.3 and da vinci after participating in Oracle 8i beta testing program in 1998, migrated to why music schools, Oracle 8i, with production implementation of 8i since March 1999. Piero. Implemented hot standby databases. Also managed MS SqlServer database for manager Vantive data. Some work with Crystal Reports in piero da vinci support of customer requested enhancements. Migrate data from various customer data sources into Oracle and transmitting data to customer sites. Frankenstein Felix. Responsible for schedules, hiring, training, personnel reviews, service levels, metrics/monitoring, management reporting, evaluation and selection of computer hardware, software, tactical and strategic planning, trainer and piero mentor, systems/database documentation, security, failover/recovery/high availability plans, configuration management, Production/development/testing environments, developer/infrastructure support. After problems with Replication, wrote PL/SQL and triggers supporting in-house replication system, as part of sunshine spotless High Availability strategy. Setup hot standby databases(now called DataGuard) as part of piero High Availability strategy, including extensive DBA and Emotional Architectural problem solving. Extensive Unix shell scripting and Perl on piero da vinci, both Solaris and Tru64, including complex SQL*Loader parameter files supporting BLOB and CLOB data. Developed extensive PL/SQL stored procedures, functions, packages, triggers, including PL/SQL server pages (PSP) Created users, database links, tables, indexes, views, materialized views, including range partitioned tables and indexes. Created batch jobs for loading data and rebuilding indexes, including Oracle TEXT indexing, (combining shell scripts and PL/SQL in batch jobs) Performed code reviews on backend PL/SQL routines and Pro*C.

Migrated data from various sources into Oracle. Unix Administration, including adding users, groups, printers, partitioning slices, rcp/rsh, Veritas File System/Volume Manager, batch jobs. Interfaced Oracle with Email systems for marketing and should be cut resume renewal campaigns. Da Vinci. Use of Perforce for source code management and Vantive for defect tracking and call tracking. May 1997 to title in essay, Jun 97 : ORACLE DBA contracted to Perot Systems. This short-term position involved installation of seven ORACLE 7.3 instances and da vinci ORACLE Financials Release 10SC using DEC Unix. Oracle DBA duties included hot and cold backups using RMAN and shell scripts, SQL Loader, Export/Import, SQL Plus, recovery management, tuning, etc. Additional duties including installation, configuration, and Emotional Inelligence Essay upgrades of both host and client software components. Da Vinci. SQL*NET and configuration of Designer/2000, Developer/2000, and education be cut applications on user and developer machines. Developed extensive Unix shell scripting for database cloning (instances) between various testing, development, and training environments. Installed and applied patches to Oracle Financials, including extensive problem solving.

Cloned Oracle Financials Instances for da vinci various Testing, Development, and Training environments. Monitored and configured Concurrent Managers, printers, user privileges, etc. Jan 1996 to eternal sunshine mind, Apr 97 : ORACLE DBA /UNIX System Manager contracted to piero, Information Technology Resources for ISUZU America, Buena Park, CA. This position involves management of model 3 Sun SparcServers including client/server technology involving TCP/IP on Intel PCs and NT workstations. Piero Da Vinci. Oracle DBA duties included hot and cold backups using RMAN and eternal sunshine mind rated shell scripts, SQL Loader, SQL Plus, Export/Import, recovery management, tuning, etc. Additional duties involved HP OpenView, ORACLE 7.2/7.3 Database and da vinci ORACLE WEB Server Administration including installation, configuration, and upgrades of education should be cut both host and client software components. SQL*NET and configuration of Programmer/2000, Designer/2000, Developer/2000, and applications on user and developer machines. Piero. Involved in the design, review, implementation, testing, and release of databases, design specifications, and application software. Built PL/SQL modules to support business processes and replication. Emotional. After initial configuration of each of the 3 Unix systems occurring about 3 months apart, 80% of this position was DBA. Data uploads and downloads nightly between various systems, including mainframe applications in piero Japan.

Developed extensive PL/SQL stored procedures, functions, packages, triggers, and forms. Difference Between. Performed code reviews and coordinated code changes between Pro*C developers in Japan and instances in Buena Park and Indiana. Developed extensive Unix shell scripting for change management of data and code between Japan and US, and testing/release management including extensive problem solving. Piero. Used Oracle Multi-Master replication between Buena Park and Indiana instances, as part of High Availability strategy. Unix Administration, including adding users, groups, printers, partitioning slices, rcp/rsh, adding pop4 server. Oct 1995 to Dec 1995 : ORACLE DBA/ VMS System Manager contracted to Sanitation Districts of Orange County, Fountain Valley, CA. This position involves management of 2 OpenVMS clusters on Alpha and VAX hardware, including client/server technology involving Pathworks, Novell, and butler definition TCP/IP on Intel PCs and NT workstations. Additional duties involved ORACLE 7.1 Database Administration on the Alpha cluster including installation and configuration of both host and client SQL*NET and configuration of Developer/2000 on clients. Jun 1995 to Oct 1995 : System Analyst/Developer contracted to piero da vinci, Unocal 76 Products, Brea, CA. This position involves requirements gathering and applications to move legacy and POS data into ORACLE FINANCIALS v10.

Applications were developed to interface APPLICATIONS OBJECT LIBRARY (AOL) using ORACLE v7.1, SQL*FORMS 2.3, PL*SQL, SQL*Loader, SQL*ReportWriter 2.0, Sequent-Dynix (Unix). Additional applications were written using SQL*FORMS 4.5 (CDE2 Windows) and between manager and leader client/server technology. Feb 1995 to May 1995 : System Analyst/Developer contracted to McDonnell Douglas, Long Beach, CA. This position involves requirements gathering and da vinci applications development in support of the Product Support groups Configuration and between manager Change Management application using ORACLE v7.1, SQL*FORMS 4.5 (CDE2 Windows), PL*SQL, SQL*ReportWriter 2.0, HP-Unix and client/server technology. Sept 1994 to piero, Dec 1994 : System Analyst/Developer contracted to Hughes Aircraft Co., Fullerton, CA. This position involves development of a Gov#39;t. Air Defense application using ORACLE V7.1, SQL*FORMS 4.0 (CDE Motif), PL*SQL, SQL*ReportWriter 2.0, HP-Unix and client/server technology. Jan 1994 to July 1994 : System Analyst/Developer contracted to Canon Computer Systems, Irvine, CA. This position involves development of a Customer Support Call Tracking application using ORACLE V7, SQL*FORMS 4.0 (CDE Windows), PL*SQL, SQL*ReportWriter 2.0 and client/server technology. Aug 1993 to why music should from schools, Feb 1994 : Principal System Analyst contracted to Rosemont Manufacturing Controls, La Habra, CA. Da Vinci. This position involves development of Manufacturing Control applications using ORACLE V6, SQL*FORMS, PL*SQL, client/server technology, and ORACLE*CASE 2.0 under VAX/VMS, Pathworks, DOS, and OS/2.

Nov 1992 to July 1993 : Principal System Analyst contracted to San Diego Port Authority, San Diego, CA. This position involves development of investment and project management applications using ORACLE V6, SQL*FORMS, PL*SQL, SQL*REPORTWRITER, client/server technology, and ORACLE*CASE 2.0 under RS/6000 and OS/2. Dec 1992 to Feb 1993 : Principal System Analyst at difference manager and leader Quantum Health Resources, Orange, CA. This position involves development of health, inventory, and drug interaction applications using ORACLE V7, SQL*FORMS and PL*SQL routines under VAX/VMS. Piero. Oct 1992 to Mar 1993 : Principal System Analyst at Peterson Publishing Co., Los Angeles, CA. This position involved installation and difference upgrades of ORACLE RDBMS and development of publishing support, marketing, and accounting applications using ORACLE V6, SQL*FORMS and PL*SQL routines under Dynix.

Aug 1992 : Training Consultant at Quantum Health Resources, Orange, CA. Presented one week training, INTRODUCTION TO ORACLE TOOLS FOR VAX/VMS DEVELOPERS to programmers using ORACLE V7, SQL*FORMS, SQL*PLUS and PL*SQL under VAX/VMS. Aug 1992 to Oct 1992 : Principal System Analyst with PTR contracted to piero, PacifiCare, Cypress, CA. Title. This position involves training users in ALL-IN-1, WordPerfect 5.0 (VMS), X-windows based terminals (NCDS), and piero da vinci general conversion of users documents from butler, HP to piero da vinci, ALL-IN-1. Nov 1991 to July 1992 : Principal System Analyst with PTR subcontracted to California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. This position requires knowledge of ORACLE RDBMS, COBOL, DCL, and Emotional Inelligence Essay C. Piero Da Vinci. Responsibilities include developing requirements and preparing programming specifications for a large, complex COBOL-based software project being migrating code and data from a Cyber to an integrated ORACLE data base, including physical data modeling and design, structured software design, analysis, synthesis, and implementation skills. July 1987 to Oct 1991 : Senior Analyst with MIDCOM subcontracted to McDonnell Douglas Space Station Company. This position requires knowledge of ORACLE RDBMS, ALL-IN-I script language, OMNIBASE (SMARTSTAR) Database, Britton Lee Database Machine, FORTRAN, Pascal, and C. Responsibilities include developing requirements, preliminary, and why music be cut from schools detailed design documents, conducting Preliminary Design Review (PDR), Critical Design Reviews (CDR) and presentations, preparing programming specifications for system implementation, developing Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) deliverables, providing systems engineering for piero da vinci large, complex software projects in an integrated data environment, including physical and eternal of the logical data modeling and use of the DACOM methodology (IDEF models), structured design/ analysis/ synthesis/ implementation skills, with systems and piero da vinci database administration and design, conducting code and film title efficiency reviews, and piero da vinci addressing code re-usability.

Oct 1985 to July 1987 : Task Order Manager (Member of the and leader Technical Staff) with TRW - Defense Systems Group in Dayton, Ohio. This position required having comprehensive knowledge of structured system design, using highly skilled technical capabilities for structured implementation using ORACLE, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALL-IN-1, Datatrieve, and BASIC, management of TRW programmer/analysts and subcontractors, project management, tracking, and reporting to both TRW management and the USAF customer, and being responsible for successful completion of the project within time and cost constraints. Varied duties included development of a project management system, software tools, programmer environments, and graphical user interfaces, gathering information for piero and development of system requirements for large, complex software projects, development of system design, analysis, synthesis, and definition recommendation of alternatives while working closely with the da vinci U.S. Air Force customer, providing technical lead and guidance, Database design and administration, developing preliminary and frankenstein detailed design Program Specifications to piero, DoD-STD-2167, conducting Preliminary (PDR) and Critical Design Reviews (CDR), preparing programming specifications for system implementation, developing Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) deliverables, (Product Specification documents, Users Manuals, Version Description documents, etc.), and recommending and implementing standards and sunshine rated training procedures. These activities are performed at the customer#39;s site using VAX-11 hardware. Piero Da Vinci. (Provided direct management of 5 programmers.) February 1984 to eternal mind, June 1985 : Computer Specialist with Ft. Campbell School District. Da Vinci. Duties included requirements analysis, structured design, and implementation of computer systems for administrative users using RPG-II/III and BASIC on film, the IBM SYS/36, SYS/23, and IBM/PC. Also conducted faculty and staff service workshops, hardware and software needs analysis, developed programming specifications, evaluated and piero recommended micro and mini-computer hardware and software, provided applications software and data conversion, modified and maintained Accounts Payable, General Ledger, and other accounting software, provided training for felix and use of MS/DOS, Lotus, WordStar, and piero da vinci Turbo Pascal, established purchasing needs and procurement specifications, set-up and maintenance of micros and minis, provide guidance for future computer utilization and why music education be cut schools networking. June 1982 to October 1985 : Learning Center Instructor with Ft. Campbell Army Education Center.

Duties included autonomous operation during evenings and piero weekends of a PLATO Computer Based Education Learning Center for the Ft. In Essay. Campbell Army Education Division. Also extensively used microcomputers including developed courseware (using TUTOR), taught programming classes (Pascal and BASIC), training for and use of MS/DOS, Lotus, WordStar, and Turbo Pascal, rostered and piero maintained student records, assisted students with PLATO, APPLEs, PCs and HP-3000 computers. June 1982 to February 1984 : Computer Systems Analyst/Consultant for Computer Software Associates. Duties included company ownership and management, structured design and analysis of customer hardware and software needs, evaluated and difference between manager recommended microcomputer hardware and software, contracting for services, developed programming specifications, managed and implemented structured software projects using Pascal and BASIC, extensive use of microcomputers, conducted user training, conducted project management and tracking. Project management of da vinci four employees. June 1981 to June 1982 : Programmer for frankenstein felix ACE Mini-Systems of Clarksville. Duties included the modification of BASIC language accounting packages for store customers. Other duties included hardware repair, ordering and stocking of computers and supplies, and limited sales. Sept 1977 to da vinci, April 1978 : Electronics Mechanics Apprentice for the U.S. Naval Shipyard, Long Beach, CA.

Duties included classroom as well as hands-on training in electronics repair and education should be cut field-changes of radar and piero digital equipment. June 1972 to June 1976 : U.S. Army, Sgt. E-5, Air Defense Artillery. Secret Clearance. Commanded 6 man squad, provided training and managed simulator classes. Professional Memberships : ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers: Computer Society), LeTip International, ORACLE Developers Alliance, Digital Equipment Corp. Independent Software Vendors Program, ICCA (Independent Computer Consultants Assoc.) Education : Baccalaureate Degree in felix COMPUTER SCIENCE, Austin Peay State University, Clarksville, TN.

Minor: Math, President ACM Student Chapter 1981. Training : IDEF Modeling Techniques and LEVERAGE workshops by D. Appleton (DACOM). ORACLE DATABASE DESIGN and ADMINISTRATION, BEGINNING and piero ADVANCED SOFTWARE DEVELOPER#39;S (included all ORACLE#39;s development tools, including SQL*FORMS 2.3 3.0, SQL*REPORTWRITER, SQL*MENU, PRO*C, PRO*COBOL, etc.) Courses by Oracle Education Services. IEEE Networking Course. Emotional Essay. Control Data Corp.#39;s CREATE (Computer Resource for Effective Author Training) curriculum for Developing and Designing Computer Managed Instructional Materials. 2001: “ Introduction to Java” by Oracle Education. “ Introduction to XML” by Learning Tree International. 2002 : “Administering the Oracle9i Application Server” by Oracle Education. 2004 : “Oracle Database 10g: New Features for Administrators” by piero da vinci Oracle Education. 2005 : 6-Sigma White Belt training. 2006 : ITIL training.

2009 : Sun#39;s MySQL DBA training. 3rd Place in CODA-94#39;s CDE Tools Programming Contest. Difference And Leader. (CDE SQL*FORMS 4.0, SQL*REPORT 2.0, and piero SQL*GRAPHICS ) Oracle Experience (by OS) : * Oracle V11g,10g,9i,8i,8.x,7.x,6 Installations/Upgrades and Applications Development using SQL*PLUS, SQL*FORMS, SQL*ReportWriter, SQL*Menu, Structured Query Language (SQL), PL*SQL triggers and procedures on Unix (Solaris, Linux, Ultrix, Dynix, HP-UX, AIX, and SCO Unix), Data Guard/Hot Standby. * SQL*FORMS 3.0 (character version) using PL*SQL triggers and procedures on Unix. * 11gAS/10gAS/9iAS (Application Server, Net Apps), WebDB, OAS, Oracle Web Server, Portal. * CDE SQL*Forms, SQL*Reports, SQL*Menu, and SQL*Graphics using Motif/MS Windows. * Oracle V7.x,6 Installations/Upgrades and Applications Development using SQL*PLUS, SQL*FORMS, SQL*ReportWriter, SQL*Menu, Structured Query Language (SQL), PL*SQL triggers and felix procedures. * SQL*FORMS 3.0 (character version) using PL*SQL triggers and procedures. Piero. * CASE*Designer, CASE*Generator, CAS*Dictionary. Manager And Leader. * Oracle V11g,10g,9i,8i,8,7 Installations/Upgrades and piero Applications Development using SQL*Forms, SQL*PLUS, SQL*ReportWriter, SQL*Menu, Structured Query Language (SQL), PL*SQL triggers and spotless rated procedures. * Developer(11g,10g,9i,6i,2000) SQL*FORMS, SQL*REPORTS, SQL*MENU, and SQL*GRAPHICS. * Designer(11g10g,9i,6i,2000) CASE*DESIGNER, CASE*Generator, CASE*Dictionary (V 5.0, 5.1, 6.0) * JDeveloper (11g,10g,9i,3), 11gAS/10gAS/9iAS (Application Server), WebDB, OAS, OWS. A total of 20 years of experience working in piero the computer industry. 31 years of general experience including 4 years in the U.S. Education Be Cut From Schools. Army (Secret clearance) and 3 1/2 years Civil Service. Most of the last 13 years have been spent as project lead or DBA on various database development projects. Piero Da Vinci. Operating Systems : C/Korn/Bourne Shell scripts, Sun Solaris, HPUX, Linux, Compaq True64 Unix, DEC Unix, DEC VAX/VMS, DEC Ultrix, Sequent Dynix, Veritas Volume Manager, Netbackup, Pyramid Unix, AIX, SCO Unix, MS Dos, Motif, OpenLook, Windows (3.11, 95, NT/2000, XP, Server 2003/2008), and OS/2. Hardware : Sun (Sparc/Intel), HP/Compaq/DEC Alpha, DEC VAX, Hewlett Packard, Sequent, Pyramid, IBM RS/6000. DBA Tools : ORACLE Enterprise Manager/Grid Control, TOAD, Network Manager, Replication Manager, ORACLE Server Manager, SQL Plus, SQL Loader, RMAN, DATAPUMP, Export/Import, Access Manager, SQL*DBA, OMNIBASE (SMARTSTAR) RDBMS, Britton Lee Database Machine, DECs RDB and sunshine spotless mind rated Datatrieve.

Data Bases : ORACLE Relational Database Management System (versions 11g, 10g, 9i,8i,8.x,7.x,6.x), including Metalink, ORACLE FORMS (versions 2.3, 3.0, 4.0, 4.5, 6i, 9i, 10g, 11g) (Internet, Net Apps, CDE, X-windows, MS-Windows, Macintosh, and da vinci character mode versions), SQL*PLUS, ORACLE Reports , SQL*Menu, Structured Query Language (SQL), Procedural Language/Structured Query Language (PL/SQL), Oracle Designer (11g,10g,9i,6i,2000), SqlServer 2005/2003/2000/7. Languages : PL/SQL , Java, XML/XSLT, Perl , Unix Shell, Pascal, COBOL, FORTRAN, BASIC, C++, C, ALL-IN-1 scripts, HTML, HTTP, INTERLEAF Publishing System, Visual Basic, Digital Command Language (DCL) using VMS operating systems, Regis Graphics Language, POSTSCRIPT, Runoff, Forms Management System (FMS), RPG-II/III, TUTOR, PL/1, Logo, PILOT, LISP, VAX Macro, and various other Assemblers. (Familiar with DEC-windows/ X-windows/ MS-Windows APIs). Title. Networking : SqlNet/Net8, Ethernet, DECNET, Pathworks, TCP/IP, ISDN, AppleTalk, Novell Lite, and da vinci Micro Soft Windows for Workgroups, NT File Servers, NFS, FTP, and POP3 Mail server installation. ERP and film title CRM Products : Oracle Financials, Vantive, SCT Banner, ACT, GoldMine. ETL/Reporting Tools : Informatica, Business Objects, Crystal Reports, Oracle Reports, Oracle Forms, SQL*Loader, PL/SQL.

Configuration Management Products : ClearCase, PerForce, Oracle Designer/SCM, CCC, CMS/MMS, ClearQuest, CVS, Dimensions, Visual Source Save (VSS). Internet Tools : ORACLE 11gAS/10gAS/9iAS, OAS, WebServer, WebDB, Portal, PSP, HTML, Netscape Communicator and piero Composer, Internet Explorer, Front Page (Web Page design as well as Web Server management and Networking issues), Internet Information Server (IIS), WebMethods, WebLogic.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Aesthetics may be defined narrowly as the theory of beauty, or more broadly as that together with the philosophy of art. The traditional interest in beauty itself broadened, in the eighteenth century, to include the sublime, and since 1950 or so the number of pure aesthetic concepts discussed in the literature has expanded even more. Traditionally, the piero da vinci, philosophy of art concentrated on its definition, but recently this has not been the focus, with careful analyses of aspects of of the art largely replacing it. Philosophical aesthetics is here considered to center on these latter-day developments. Thus, after a survey of ideas about beauty and related concepts, questions about the value of aesthetic experience and the variety of aesthetic attitudes will be addressed, before turning to matters which separate art from pure aesthetics, notably the presence of intention. Da Vinci? That will lead to a survey of sunshine of the rated some of the piero da vinci, main definitions of art which have been proposed, together with an account of the in essay, recent “de-definition” period. The concepts of expression, representation, and the nature of art objects will then be covered.

The full field of what might be called “aesthetics” is piero da vinci, a very large one. Sunshine Of The Spotless Mind Rated? There is da vinci, even now a four-volume encyclopedia devoted to the full range of possible topics. Emotional Essay? The core issues in Philosophical Aesthetics, however, are nowadays fairly settled (see the book edited by Dickie, Sclafani, and Roblin, and the monograph by Sheppard, among many others). Aesthetics in this central sense has been said to start in the early eighteenth century, with the series of articles on “The Pleasures of the Imagination” which the journalist Joseph Addison wrote in the early issues of the magazine The Spectator in 1712. Before this time, thoughts by notable figures made some forays into piero da vinci, this ground, for instance in the formulation of general theories of proportion and harmony, detailed most specifically in architecture and music. But the full development of extended, philosophical reflection on Aesthetics did not begin to emerge until the widening of leisure activities in the eighteenth century. By far the most thoroughgoing and influential of the early theorists was Immanuel Kant, towards the end of the eighteenth century. Therefore it is important, first of Essay all, to da vinci have some sense of how Kant approached the subject.

Criticisms of his ideas, and difference, alternatives to them, will be presented later in this entry, but through him we can meet some of the piero, key concepts in the subject by be cut schools way of da vinci introduction. Kant is sometimes thought of as a formalist in between and leader, art theory; that is to say, someone who thinks the content of a work of art is not of aesthetic interest. But this is only part of the story. Certainly he was a formalist about the pure enjoyment of nature, but for Kant most of the piero da vinci, arts were impure, because they involved a “concept.” Even the enjoyment of parts of nature was impure, namely when a concept was involved— as when we admire the perfection of an animal body or a human torso. But our enjoyment of, for instance, the arbitrary abstract patterns in education should from schools, some foliage, or a color field (as with wild poppies, or a sunset) was, according to Kant, absent of such concepts; in such cases, the cognitive powers were in free play. Da Vinci? By design, art may sometimes obtain the appearance of should from this freedom: it was then “Fine Art”—but for Kant not all art had this quality. In all, Kant’s theory of pure beauty had four aspects: its freedom from piero da vinci concepts, its objectivity, the disinterest of the spectator, and its obligatoriness. By “concept,” Kant meant “end,” or “purpose,” that is, what the frankenstein felix, cognitive powers of human understanding and imagination judge applies to an object, such as with “it is a pebble,” to take an instance. But when no definite concept is involved, as with the piero da vinci, scattered pebbles on a beach, the cognitive powers are held to be in free play; and definition, it is da vinci, when this play is harmonious that there is the eternal sunshine spotless, experience of pure beauty. There is also objectivity and universality in the judgment then, according to Kant, since the cognitive powers are common to all who can judge that the individual objects are pebbles.

These powers function alike whether they come to such a definite judgment or are left suspended in free play, as when appreciating the pattern along the shoreline. This was not the da vinci, basis on which the apprehension of pure beauty was obligatory, however. According to Kant, that derived from the selflessness of such an apprehension, what was called in the eighteenth century its “disinterest.” This arises because pure beauty does not gratify us sensuously; nor does it induce any desire to possess the object. It “pleases,” certainly, but in a distinctive intellectual way. Pure beauty, in other words, simply holds our mind’s attention: we have no further concern than contemplating the object itself.

Perceiving the butler model, object in such cases is an end in itself; it is not a means to a further end, and is enjoyed for its own sake alone. It is because Morality requires we rise above ourselves that such an exercise in selfless attention becomes obligatory. Judgments of da vinci pure beauty, being selfless, initiate one into the moral point of and leader view. Piero Da Vinci? “Beauty is a symbol of Morality,” and “The enjoyment of nature is the mark of a good soul” are key sayings of definition Kant. The shared enjoyment of da vinci a sunset or a beach shows there is harmony between us all, and the world. Among these ideas, the notion of “disinterest” has had much the widest currency. Indeed, Kant took it from eighteenth century theorists before him, such as the moral philosopher, Lord Shaftesbury, and it has attracted much attention since: recently by the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, for instance. Clearly, in this context “disinterested” does not mean “uninterested,” and education be cut, paradoxically it is closest to what we now call our “interests,” that is, such things as hobbies, travel, and sport, as we shall see below. But in earlier centuries, one’s “interest” was what was to piero one’s advantage, that is, it was “self-interest,” and so it was the negation of that which closely related aesthetics to ethics. The eighteenth century was a surprisingly peaceful time, but this turned out to be the lull before the storm, since out of why music education should its orderly classicism there developed a wild romanticism in art and literature, and even revolution in politics. The aesthetic concept which came to be more appreciated in this period was associated with this, namely sublimity, which Edmund Burke theorized about in his “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our ideas of the Sublime and piero, Beautiful.” The sublime was connected more with pain than pure pleasure, according to Burke, since threats to Essay self-preservation were involved, as on the high seas, and lonely moors, with the piero da vinci, devilish humans and dramatic passions that artists and writers were about to portray.

But in these circumstances, of title in essay course, it is da vinci, still “delightful horror,” as Burke appreciated, since one is insulated by the fictionality of the work in question from any real danger. “Sublime” and “beautiful” are only two amongst the frankenstein felix, many terms which may be used to describe our aesthetic experiences. Clearly there are “ridiculous” and “ugly,” for a start, as well. But the more discriminating will have no difficulty also finding something maybe “fine,” or “lovely” rather than “awful” or “hideous,” and “exquisite” or “superb” rather than “gross” or “foul.” Frank Sibley wrote a notable series of piero articles, starting in 1959, defending a view of aesthetic concepts as a whole. He said that they were not rule- or condition-governed, but required a heightened form of Essay perception, which one might call taste, sensitivity, or judgment. His full analysis, however, contained another aspect, since he was not only concerned with the sorts of concepts mentioned above, but also with a set of others which had a rather different character. For one can describe works of art, often enough, in terms which relate primarily to the emotional and mental life of human beings. One can call them “joyful,” “melancholy,” “serene,” “witty,” “vulgar,” and “humble,” for da vinci, instance.

These are evidently not purely aesthetic terms, because of education be cut from schools their further uses, but they are still very relevant to many aesthetic experiences. Sibley’s claim about these concepts was that there were no sufficient conditions for their application. For many concepts—sometimes called “closed” concepts, as a result—both necessary and sufficient conditions for their application can be given. To be a bachelor, for instance, it is da vinci, necessary to butler be male and unmarried, though of marriageable age, and together these three conditions are sufficient. Piero Da Vinci? For other concepts, however, the so-called “open” ones, no such definitions can be given— although for aesthetic concepts Sibley pointed out in essay there were still some necessary conditions, since certain facts can rule out the application of, for example, “garish,” “gaudy,” or “flamboyant.”

The question therefore arises: how do we make aesthetic judgments if not by checking sufficient conditions? Sibley’s account was that, when the concepts were not purely perceptual they were mostly metaphoric. Thus, we call artworks “dynamic,” or “sad,” as before, by comparison with the behaviors of humans with those qualities. Other theorists, such as Rudolph Arnheim and Roger Scruton, have held similar views. Da Vinci? Scruton, in fact, discriminated eight types of aesthetic concept, and we shall look at some of the others below. We have noted Kant’s views about the objectivity and universality of judgments of pure beauty, and there are several ways that these notions have been further defended. There is a famous curve, for instance, obtained by the nineteenth century psychologist Wilhelm Wundt, which shows how human arousal is butler, quite generally related to complexity of stimulus.

We are bored by the simple, become sated, even over-anxious, by the increasingly complex, while in between there is a region of greatest pleasure. The dimension of complexity is only one objective measure of worth which has been proposed in this way. Thus it is now known, for instance, that judgments of facial beauty in piero da vinci, humans are a matter of averageness and symmetry. Traditionally, unity was taken to be central, notably by Aristotle in connection with Drama, and eternal of the spotless, when added to complexity it formed a general account of piero da vinci aesthetic value. Thus Francis Hutcheson, in film in essay, the eighteenth century, asserted that “Uniformity in variety always makes an object beautiful.” Monroe Beardsley, more recently, has introduced a third criterion—intensity—to produce his three “General Canons” of objective worth.

He also detailed some “Special Canons.” Beardsley called the objective criteria within styles of Art “Special Canons.” These were not a matter of something being good of piero da vinci its kind and so involving perfection of sunshine spotless mind a concept in the sense of Kant. They involved defeasible “good-making” and “bad-making” features, more in the manner Hume explained in his major essay in this area, “Of the Standard of Taste” (1757). To say a work of art had a positive quality like humor, for instance, was to praise it to some degree, but this could be offset by da vinci other qualities which made the model, work not good as a whole. Beardsley defended all of his canons in piero, a much more detailed way than his eighteenth century predecessor however: through a lengthy, fine-grained, historical analysis of what critics have actually appealed to in the evaluation of artworks. Manager And Leader? Also, he explicitly made the disclaimer that his canons were the only criteria of value, by separating these “objective reasons” from what he called “affective” and piero, “genetic” reasons. These two other sorts of reasons were to do with audience response, and the originating artist and his times, respectively, and eternal rated, either “The Affective Fallacy” or “The Intentional Fallacy,” he maintained, was involved if these were considered.

The discrimination enabled Beardsley to focus on the artwork and its representational relations, if any, to da vinci objects in the public world. Against Beardsley, over many years, Joseph Margolis maintained a “Robust Relativism.” Thus he wanted to film in essay say that “aptness,” “partiality,” and “non-cognitivism” characterize art appreciation, rather than “truth,” “universality,” and piero da vinci, “knowledge.” He defended this with respect to aesthetic concepts, critical judgments of value, and literary interpretations in particular, saying, more generally, that works of art were “culturally emergent entities” not directly accessible, because of this, to any faculty resembling sense perception. The main debate over aesthetic value, indeed, concerns social and political matters, and the seemingly inevitable partiality of different points of view. The central question concerns whether there is a privileged class, namely those with aesthetic interests, or whether their set of interests has no distinguished place, since, from a sociological perspective, that taste is just one amongst all other tastes in the democratic economy. The sociologist Arnold Hauser preferred a non-relativistic point of view, and was prepared to give a ranking of tastes.

High art beat popular art, Hauser said, because of two things: the significance of its content, and the more creative nature of its forms. Frankenstein? Roger Taylor, by contrast, set out very fully the “leveller’s” point of piero da vinci view, declaring that Aida and The Sound of Music have equal value for their respective audiences. He defended this with a thorough philosophical analysis, rejecting the idea that there is such a thing as truth corresponding to model definition an external reality, with the piero, people capable of accessing that truth having some special value. Instead, according to felix Taylor, there are just different conceptual schemes, in which truth is measured merely by coherence internal to da vinci the scheme itself. Janet Wolff looked at this debate more disinterestedly, in particular studying the details of the opposition between Kant and Bourdieu. Jerome Stolnitz, in the middle of the last century, was a Kantian, and promoted the need for a disinterested, objective attitude to mind art objects. Piero? It is debatable, as we saw before, whether this represents Kant’s total view of art, but the disinterested treatment of film title in essay art objects which Stolnitz recommended was very commonly pursued in his period. Edward Bullough, writing in 1912, would have called “disinterested attention” a “distanced” attitude, but he used this latter term to generate a much fuller and more detailed appreciation of the whole spectrum of attitudes which might be taken to artworks.

The spectrum stretched from people who “over-distance” to people who “under-distance.” People who over-distance are, for instance, critics who merely look at the technicalities and craftwork of a production, missing any emotional involvement with what it is about. Bullough contrasted this attitude with what he called “under-distancing,” where one might get too gripped by the content. Piero? The country yokel who jumps upon the stage to save the heroine, and model definition, the jealous husband who sees himself as Othello smothering his wife, are missing the da vinci, fact that the play is an illusion, a fiction, just make-believe. Bullough thought there was, instead, an ideal mid-point between his two extremes, thereby solving his “antinomy of distance” by deciding there should be the least possible distance without its disappearance. George Dickie later argued against manager, both “disinterest” and “distance” in a famous 1964 paper, “The Myth of the Aesthetic Attitude.” He argued that we should be able to piero da vinci enjoy all objects of awareness, whether “pure aesthetic” or moral. In fact, he thought the term “aesthetic” could be used in all cases, rejecting the idea that there was some authorized way of film title using the word just to apply to surface or formal features— the piero da vinci, artwork as a thing in itself.

As a result, Dickie concluded that the aesthetic attitude, when properly understood, reduced to just close attention to whatever holds one’s mind in frankenstein, an artwork, against the tradition which believed it had a certain psychological quality, or else involved attention just to certain objects. Art is not the only object to da vinci draw interest of this pleasurable kind: hobbies and travel are further examples, and sport yet another, as was mentioned briefly above. Eternal Sunshine Mind Rated? In particular, the broadening of the aesthetic tradition in recent years has led theorists to give more attention to sport. David Best, for instance, writing on sport and its likeness to art, highlighted how close sport is to the purely aesthetic. But he wanted to limit sport to piero da vinci this, and insisted it had no relevance to ethics. Best saw art forms as distinguished expressly by their having the capacity to comment on life situations, and education be cut schools, hence bring in moral considerations. Piero Da Vinci? No sport had this further capacity, he thought, although the enjoyment of many sports may undoubtedly be aesthetic. But many art forms—perhaps more clearly called “craft-forms” as a result— also do not comment on life situations overmuch, for example, decor, abstract painting, and non-narrative ballet.

And there are many sports which are pre-eminently seen in moral, “character-building” terms, for sunshine mind, example, mountaineering, and the various combat sports (like boxing and wrestling). Perhaps the resolution comes through noting the division Best himself provides within sport-forms, between, on the one hand, “task” or “non-purposive” sports like gymnastics, diving, and synchronized swimming, which are the ones he claims are aesthetic, and on the other hand the “achievement,” or “purposive’ sports, like those combat sports above. Task sports have less “art” in da vinci, them, since they are not as creative as the purposive ones. The traditional form of art criticism was biographical and sociological, taking into account the conceptions of the artist and the history of the Emotional Inelligence, traditions within which the artist worked. But in the twentieth century a different, more scientific and ahistorical form of literary criticism grew up in the United States and Britain: The New Criticism. Like the Russian Formalists and French Structuralists in the same period, the New Critics regarded what could be gleaned from the piero, work of art alone as relevant to butler model its assessment, but their specific position received a much-discussed philosophical defense by da vinci William Wimsatt and Monroe Beardsley in 1946. Beardsley saw the frankenstein, position as an extension of “The Aesthetic Point of da vinci View”; Wimsatt was a practical critic personally engaged in the new line of difference between and leader approach. In their essay “The Intentional Fallacy,” Wimsatt and Beardsley claimed “the design or intention of the piero, artist is neither available nor desirable as a standard for judging the success of a work of literary art.” It was not always available, since it was often difficult to obtain, but, in any case, it was not appropriately available, according to them, unless there was evidence for it internal to the finished work of art.

Wimsatt and Beardsley allowed such forms of model definition evidence for piero da vinci, a writer’s intentions, but would allow nothing external to the given text. This debate over intention in the literary arts has raged with full force into more recent times. A contemporary of Wimsatt and Beardsley, E.D. Hirsch, has continued to maintain his “intentionalist” point of view. Against him, Steven Knapp and Walter Benn Michaels have taken up an ahistorical position. Frank Cioffi, one of the original writers who wrote a forceful reply to Wimsatt and Beardsley, aligned himself with neither camp, believing different cases were “best read” sometimes just as, sometimes other than as, the artist knowingly intended them. One reason he rejected intention, at times, was because he believed the artist might be unconscious of the education be cut schools, full significance of the artwork. A similar debate arises in other art forms besides Literature, for piero da vinci, instance Architecture, Theater, and Music, although it has caused less professional comment in these arts, occurring more at the practical level in terms of frankenstein felix argument between “purists” and “modernizers.” Purists want to maintain a historical orientation to these art forms, while modernizers want to make things more available for piero, contemporary use. The debate also has a more practical aspect in connection with the visual arts.

For it arises in the question of what devalues fakes and forgeries, and by contrast puts a special value on originality. There have been several notable frauds perpetrated by forgers of artworks and between manager, their associates. The question is: if the surface appearance is much the same, what especial value is piero, there in frankenstein felix, the first object? Nelson Goodman was inclined to think that one can always locate a sufficient difference by looking closely at the visual appearance. Piero? But even if one cannot, there remain the different histories of the frankenstein felix, original and the copy, and also the different intentions behind them. The relevance of such intentions in visual art has entered very prominently into philosophical discussion. Arthur Danto, in his 1964 discussion of “The Artworld,” was concerned with the question of how the atmosphere of piero theory can alter how we see artworks. Film Title? This situation has arisen in fact with respect to two notable paintings which look the same, as Timothy Binkley has explained, namely Leonardo’s original “Mona Lisa” and Duchamp’s joke about it, called “L.H.O.O.Q. Shaved.” The two works look ostensibly the same, but Duchamp, one needs to know, had also produced a third work, “L.H.O.O.Q.,” which was a reproduction of the Mona Lisa, with some graffiti on it: a goatee and moustache. Piero Da Vinci? He was alluding in film, that work to the possibility that the sitter for da vinci, the Mona Lisa might have been a young male, given the stories about Leonardo’s homosexuality.

With the graffiti removed the otherwise visually similar works are still different, since Duchamp’s title, and the history of its production, alters what we think about his piece. Up to the “de-definition” period, definitions of art fell broadly into three types, relating to representation, expression, and form. The dominance of representation as a central concept in art lasted from before Plato’s time to around the end of the eighteenth century. Of course, representational art is still to be found to this day, but it is no longer pre-eminent in the way it once was. Plato first formulated the idea by saying that art is mimesis, and, for instance, Bateaux in the eighteenth century followed him, when saying: “Poetry exists only by imitation. It is the Inelligence, same thing with painting, dance and piero, music; nothing is frankenstein, real in their works, everything is piero da vinci, imagined, painted, copied, artificial. It is manager and leader, what makes their essential character as opposed to nature.” In the piero da vinci, same century and the following one, with the advent of Romanticism, the concept of between expression became more prominent. Da Vinci? Even around Plato’s time, his pupil Aristotle preferred an expression theory: art as catharsis of the emotions. And Burke, Hutcheson, and Hume also promoted the idea that what was crucial in art were audience responses: pleasure in Art was a matter of taste and sentiment.

But the full flowering of the theory of Expression, in title in essay, the twentieth century, has shown that this is only one side of the picture. In the taxonomy of art terms Scruton provided, Response theories concentrate on piero affective qualities such as “moving,” “exciting,” “nauseous,” “tedious,” and between, so forth. But theories of da vinci art may be called “expression theories” even though they focus on the embodied, emotional, and mental qualities discussed before, like “joyful,” “melancholy,” “humble,” “vulgar,” and “intelligent.” As we shall see below, when recent studies of expression are covered in frankenstein felix, more detail, it has been writers like John Hospers and piero da vinci, O.K. Bouwsma who have preferred such theories. But there are other types of model theory which might, even more appropriately, be called “expression theories.” What an artist is personally expressing is the da vinci, focus of Emotional Inelligence self-expression theories of art, but more universal themes are often expressed by individuals, and art-historical theories see the artist as merely the channel for broader social concerns.

R. G. Collingwood in the 1930s took art to piero da vinci be a matter of self-expression: “By creating for ourselves an imaginary experience or activity, we express our emotions; and this is what we call art.” And the noteworthy feature of Marx’s theory of art, in the nineteenth century, and those of the many different Marxists who followed him into frankenstein, the twentieth century, was that they were expression theories in the “art-Historical” sense. The arts were taken, by people of this persuasion, to da vinci be part of the superstructure of society, whose forms were determined by butler model the economic base, and so art came to be seen as expressing, or “reflecting” those material conditions. Social theories of art, however, need not be based on piero da vinci materialism. One of the major social theorists of the late nineteenth century was the novelist Leo Tolstoy, who had a more spiritual point of view. He said: “Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously, by means of should from schools certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that others are infected by these feelings and also experience them.” Coming into the twentieth century, the main focus shifted towards abstraction and the appreciation of form.

The aesthetic, and the arts and crafts movements, in the latter part of the nineteenth century drew people towards the da vinci, appropriate qualities. The central concepts in aesthetics are here the eternal sunshine of the rated, pure aesthetic ones mentioned before, like “graceful,” “elegant,” “exquisite,” “glorious,” and “nice.” But formalist qualities, such as organization, unity, and harmony, as well as variety and complexity, are closely related, as are technical judgments like “well-made,” “skilful,” and “professionally written.” The latter might be separated out as the focus of Craft theories of art, as in the idea of art as “Techne” in ancient Greece, but Formalist theories commonly focus on all of these qualities, and “aesthetes” generally find them all of central concern. Eduard Hanslick was a major late nineteenth century musical formalist; the da vinci, Russian Formalists in eternal mind, the early years of the revolution, and piero, the French Structuralists later, promoted the same interest in Literature. Clive Bell and Roger Fry, members of the influential Bloomsbury Group in the first decades of the twentieth century, were the most noted early promoters of this aspect of Visual art. Bell’s famous “Aesthetic Hypothesis” was: “What quality is shared by all objects that provoke our aesthetic emotions? Only one answer seems possible— significant form.

In each, lines and colors combined in a particular way; certain forms and relations of film title forms, stir our aesthetic emotions. These relations and combinations of lines and colors, these aesthetically moving forms, I call ‘Significant Form’; and ‘Significant Form’ is the one quality common to all works of visual art.” Clement Greenberg, in the years of the piero, Abstract Expressionists, from the 1940s to film title the 1970s, also defended a version of this Formalism. Abstraction was a major drive in early twentieth century art, but the later decades largely abandoned the idea of any tight definition of art. The “de-definition” of art was formulated in academic philosophy by Morris Weitz, who derived his views from some work of Wittgenstein on the notion of games. Da Vinci? Wittgenstein claimed that there is nothing which all games have in common, and so the historical development of them has come about through an analogical process of generation, from paradigmatic examples merely by way of “family resemblances.” There are, however, ways of providing a kind of definition of art which respects its open texture. The Institutional definition of art, formulated by George Dickie, is in this class: “a work of title in essay art is an artefact which has had conferred upon it the status of piero da vinci candidate for model, appreciation by piero da vinci the artworld.” This leaves the content of frankenstein art open, since it is left up to museum directors, festival organizers, and so forth, to decide what is presented. Also, as we saw before, Dickie left the notion of “appreciation” open, since he allowed that all aspects of a work of art could be attended to aesthetically. But the notion of “artefact,” too, in this definition is not as restricted as it might seem, since anything brought into an art space as a candidate for appreciation becomes thereby “artefactualized,” according to Dickie— and da vinci, so he allowed as art what are otherwise called (natural) Found Objects, and (previously manufactured) Readymades. Less emphasis on power brokers was found in Monroe Beardsley’s slightly earlier aesthetic definition of frankenstein art: “an artwork is something produced with the da vinci, intention of giving it the capacity to satisfy the aesthetic interest”— where “production” and “aesthetic” have their normal, restricted content.

But this suggests that these two contemporary definitions, like the others, merely reflect the historical way that art developed in the associated period. Certainly traditional objective aesthetic standards, in the earlier twentieth century, have largely given way to free choices in Inelligence Essay, all manner of piero things by the mandarins of the public art world more recently. Response theories of title art were particularly popular during the Logical Positivist period in philosophy, that is, around the 1920s and 1930s. Science was then contrasted sharply with Poetry, for instance, the former being supposedly concerned with our rational mind, the da vinci, latter with our irrational emotions. Thus the frankenstein felix, noted English critic I. A. Richards tested responses to poems scientifically in an attempt to judge their value, and unsurprisingly found no uniformity. Out of this kind of study comes the common idea that “art is all subjective”: if one concentrates on whether people do or do not like a particular work of art then, naturally, there can easily seem to be no reason to it.

We are now more used to thinking that the emotions are rational, partly because we now distinguish the cause of an emotion from its target. Piero? If one looks at what emotions are caused by an artwork, not all of these need target the artwork itself, but instead what is merely associated with it. So what the subjective approach centrally overlooks are questions to do with attention, relevance, and title, understanding. With those as controlling features we get a basis for normalizing the expected audience’s emotions in connection with the artwork, and so move away from purely personal judgments such as “Well, it saddened me” to more universal assessments like “it was sad.” And with the “it” more focused on the artwork we also start to da vinci see the significance of the objective emotional features it metaphorically possesses, which were what Embodiment theorists like Hospers settled on as central. Hospers, following Bouwsma, claimed that the sadness of some music, for instance, concerns not what is sunshine mind, evoked in us, nor any feeling experienced by the composer, but simply its physiognomic similarity to piero humans when sad: “it will be slow not tripping; it will be low not tinkling. People who are sad move more slowly, and when they speak they speak softly and low.” This was also a point of view developed at length by the gestalt psychologist Rudolph Arnheim. The discriminations do not stop there, however. Guy Sircello, against Hospers, pointed out of the spotless mind rated first that there are two ways emotions may be embodied in artworks: because of piero their form (which is what Hospers chiefly had in why music should, mind), and because of their content. Piero? Thus, a picture may be sad not because of its mood or color, but because its subject matter or topic is pathetic or miserable. That point was only sunshine spotless mind rated, a prelude, however, to an even more radical criticism of Embodiment theories by Sircello.

For emotion words can also be applied, he said, on account of the “artistic acts” performed by the artists in presenting their attitude to their subject. If we look upon an artwork from this perspective, we are seeing it as a “symptom” in Suzanne Langer’s terms; however, Langer believed one should see it as a “symbol” holding some meaning which can be communicated to others. Communication theorists all combine the three elements above, namely the audience, the artwork, and the artist, but they come in a variety of stamps. Da Vinci? Thus, while Clive Bell and Roger Fry were Formalists, they were also Communication Theorists. Felix? They supposed that an piero da vinci, artwork transmitted “aesthetic emotion” from the artist to the audience on account of its “significant form.” Leo Tolstoi was also a communication theorist but of almost the opposite sort. Education Should Schools? What had to be transmitted, for Tolstoi, was expressly what was excluded by Bell and (to a lesser extent) Fry, namely the “emotions of life.” Tolstoi wanted art to serve a moral purpose: helping to bind communities together in piero da vinci, their fellowship and common humanity under God. Bell and Fry saw no such social purpose in art, and related to this difference were their opposing views regarding the value of aesthetic properties and rated, pleasure. These were anathema to Tolstoi, who, like Plato, thought they led to waste; but the piero, “exalted” feelings coming from the between manager and leader, appreciation of pure form were celebrated by da vinci Bell and Fry, since their “metaphysical hypothesis” claimed it put one in touch with “ultimate reality.” Bell said, “What is that which is left when we have stripped a thing of all sensations, of all its significance as a means? What but that which philosophers used to call ‘the thing in itself’ and now call ‘ultimate reality’.” This debate between moralists and aesthetes continues to from this day with, for instance, Noel Carroll supporting a “Moderate Moralism” while Anderson and da vinci, Dean support “Moderate Autonomism.” Autonomism wants aesthetic value to be isolated from ethical value, whereas Moralism sees them as more intimately related. Communication theorists generally compare art to a form of Language.

Langer was less interested than the above theorists in legislating what may be communicated, and was instead concerned to discriminate different art languages, and Inelligence, the differences between art languages generally and verbal languages. She said, in brief, that art conveyed emotions of various kinds, while verbal language conveyed thoughts, which was a point made by Tolstoy too. But Langer spelled out the matter in far finer detail. Thus, she held that art languages were “presentational” forms of expression, while verbal languages were “discursive”— with Poetry, an art form using verbal language, combining both aspects, of course. Somewhat like Hospers and Bouwsma, Langer said that art forms presented feelings because they were “morphologically similar” to them: an artwork, she held, shared the same form as the feeling it symbolizes.

This gave rise to the main differences between presentational and da vinci, discursive modes of communication: verbal languages had a vocabulary, a syntax, determinate meanings, and the possibility of translation, but none of these were guaranteed for art languages, according to Langer. Art languages revealed “what it is like” to experience something— they created “virtual experiences.” The detailed ways in which this arises with different art forms Langer explained in her 1953 book Feeling and Form. Scruton followed Langer in several ways, notably by remarking that the experience of why music should be cut from each art form is sui generis, that is, “each of its own kind.” He also spelled out the characteristics of a symbol in even more detail. Discussions of questions specific to each art form have been pursued by many other writers; see, for instance, Dickie, Sclafani, and da vinci, Roblin, and the recent book by Gordon Graham. Like the felix, concept of Expression, the concept of Representation has been very thoroughly examined since the professionalization of Philosophy in da vinci, the twentieth century. Isn’t representation just a matter of copying? If representation could be understood simply in terms of copying, that would require “the innocent eye,” that is, one which did not incorporate any interpretation. E. H. Gombrich was the first to point out that modes of representation are, by contrast, conventional, and therefore have a cultural, socio-historical base.

Thus perspective, which one might view as merely mechanical, is only a recent way of representing space, and many photographs distort what we take to be reality— for frankenstein felix, instance, those from the ground of da vinci tall buildings, which seem to make them incline inwards at the top. Goodman, too, recognized that depiction was conventional; he likened it to denotation, that is, the relation between a word and what it stands for. Sunshine Mind? He also gave a more conclusive argument against copying being the basis of representation. Piero Da Vinci? For that would make resemblance a type of representation, whereas if a resembles b, then b resembles a— yet a dog does not represent its picture. In other words, Goodman is education should be cut schools, saying that resemblance implies a symmetric relationship, but representation does not. As a result, Goodman made the point that representation is not a craft but an piero, art: we create pictures of things, achieving a view of those things by representing them as this or as that. As a result, while one sees the film title, objects depicted, the artist’s thoughts about those objects may also be discerned, as with Sircello’s “artistic arts.” The plain idea that just objects are represented in a picture was behind Richard Wollheim’s account of representational art in da vinci, the first edition of his book Art and Its Objects (1968).

There, the paint in a picture was said to be “seen as” an object. But in why music should be cut, the book’s second edition, Wollheim augmented this account to allow for piero, what is also “seen in” the work, which includes such things as the thoughts of the artist. There are philosophical questions of another kind, however, with respect to the representation of objects, because of the problematic nature of fictions. There are three broad categories of object which might be represented: individuals which exist, like Napoleon; types of thing which exist, like kangaroos; and Essay, things which do not exist, like Mr. Pickwick, and piero da vinci, unicorns. Goodman’s account of representation easily allowed for the first two categories, since, if depictions are like names, the first two categories of painting compare, respectively, with the relations between the proper name “Napoleon” and and leader, the person Napoleon, and the common name “kangaroo” and the various kangaroos. Piero? Some philosophers would think that the third category was as easily accommodated, but Goodman, being an of the spotless rated, Empiricist (and so concerned with the extensional world), was only da vinci, prepared to Essay countenance existent objects. So for him pictures of fictions did not denote or represent anything; instead, they were just patterns of various sorts. Pictures of unicorns were just shapes, for Goodman, which meant that he saw the description “picture of da vinci a unicorn” as unarticulated into parts. What he preferred to from schools call a “unicorn-picture” was merely a design with certain named shapes within it. One needs to allow there are “intensional” objects as well as extensional ones before one can construe “picture of da vinci a unicorn’ as parallel to “picture of a kangaroo.” By contrast with Goodman, Scruton is butler, one philosopher more happy with this kind of piero construal.

It is a construal generally more congenial to butler definition Idealists, and to Realists of various persuasions, than to Empiricists. The contrast between Empiricists and other types of piero da vinci philosopher also bears on other central matters to do with fictions. Is a fictional story a lie about this world, or a truth about some other? Only if one believes there are other worlds, in some kind of Emotional Inelligence Essay way, will one be able to piero see much beyond untruths in stories. Between? A Realist will settle for there being “fictional characters,” often enough, about which we know there are some determinate truths— wasn’t Mr.

Pickwick fat? But one difficulty then is knowing things about piero Mr. Eternal Sunshine Of The Spotless? Pickwick other than what Dickens tells us— was Mr. Pickwick fond of grapes, for instance? An Idealist will be more prepared to consider fictions as just creatures of our imaginations. This style of analysis has been particularly prominent recently, with Scruton essaying a general theory of the imagination in which statements like “Mr. Piero Da Vinci? Pickwick was fat” are entertained in film title, an “unasserted” fashion.

One problem with this style of da vinci analysis is explaining how we can have emotional relations with, and responses to, fictional entities. We noticed this kind of problem before, in butler definition, Burke’s description “delightful horror”: how can audiences get pleasure from tragedies and horror stories when, if those same events were encountered in real life, they would surely be anything but pleasurable? On the da vinci, other hand, unless we believe that fictions are real, how can we, for instance, be moved by the fate of Inelligence Anna Karenina? Colin Radford, in 1975, wrote a celebrated paper on this matter which concluded that the “paradox of emotional response to fiction” was unsolvable: adult emotional responses to da vinci fictions were “brute facts,” but they were still incoherent and irrational, he said. Radford defended this conclusion in a series of further papers in what became an extensive debate. Difference Manager And Leader? Kendall Walton, in his 1990 book Mimesis and Make-Believe, pursued at length an Idealist’s answer to Radford. At a play, for instance, Walton said the audience enters into a form of pretence with the actors, not believing, but making believe that the portrayed events and emotions are real. What kind of thing is a work of art? Goodman, Wollheim, Wolterstorff, and Margolis have been notable contributors to piero da vinci the contemporary debate. We must first distinguish the artwork from its notation or “recipe,” and from its various physical realizations.

Examples would be: some music, its score, and model, its performances; a drama, its script, and its performances; an etching, its plate, and its prints; and a photograph, its negative, and its positives. The notations here are “digital” in the first two cases, and “analogue” in the second two, since they involve discrete elements like notes and words in the one case, and piero, continuous elements like lines and color patches in the other. Realizations can also be divided into why music education be cut schools, two broad types, as these same examples illustrate: there are those that arise in time (performance works) and those that arise in space (object works). Realizations are always physical entities. Sometimes there is only one realization, as with architect-designed houses, couturier-designed dresses, and da vinci, many paintings, and Wollheim concluded that in these cases the artwork is entirely physical, consisting of that one, unique realization. However, a number a copies were commonly made of spotless paintings in the middle ages, and it is theoretically possible to replicate even expensive clothing and houses.

Philosophical questions in piero, this area arise mainly with respect to the ontological status of the model definition, idea which gets executed. Wollheim brought in piero da vinci, Charles Peirce’s distinction between types and tokens, as an Inelligence, answer to this: the number of piero da vinci different tokens of letters (7), and different types of letter (5), in the string “ABACDEC,” indicates the difference. In Essay? Realizations are tokens, but ideas are types, that is, categories of piero da vinci objects. There is a normative connection between them as Margolis and Nicholas Wolterstorff have explained, since the execution of ideas is an essentially social enterprise. That also explains how the need for a notation arises: one which would link not only the idea with its execution, but also the various functionaries. Emotional Inelligence Essay? Broadly, there are the creative persons who generate the ideas, which are transmitted by piero means of a recipe to difference between and leader manufacturers who generate the material objects and piero, performances. “Types are created, particulars are made” it has been said, but the link is through the definition, recipe. Schematically, two main figures are associated with the production of many artworks: the architect and the builder, the couturier and the dressmaker, the composer and the performer, the piero da vinci, choreographer and the dancer, the script-writer and the actor, and so forth. Difference Between And Leader? But a much fuller list of piero operatives is eternal spotless mind rated, usually involved, as is da vinci, very evident with the Inelligence, production of films, and other similar large entertainments. Sometimes the director of a film is concerned to piero da vinci control all its aspects, when we get the notion of an “auteur” who can be said to be the author of the work, but normally, creativity and craft thread through the eternal sunshine spotless, whole production process, since even those designated “originators” still work within certain traditions, and no recipe can limit entirely the end product. The associated philosophical question concerns the nature of any creativity. There is not much mystery about the making of particulars from piero some recipe, but much more needs to be said about the process of originating some new idea.

For creation is not just a matter of getting into an excited mental state— as in a “brainstorming” session, for instance. Film? That is a central part of the “creative process theory,” a form of which is to da vinci be found in the work of between manager Collingwood. It was in piero, these terms that Collingwood distinguished the artist from the craftsperson, namely with reference to what the artist was capable of generating just in his or her mind. Butler Definition? But the major difficulty with this kind of theory is that any novelty has to be judged externally in terms of the artist’s social place amongst other workers in the field, as Jack Glickman has shown. Certainly, if it is to be an original idea, the artist cannot know beforehand what the outcome of the creative process will be. But others might have had the same idea before, and if the outcome was known already, then the idea thought up was not original in the appropriate sense.

Thus the artist will not be credited with ownership in such cases. Creation is da vinci, not a process, but a public achievement: it is a matter of breaking the tape ahead of others in a certain race.

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11 Steps to da vinci, Writing the Perfect Resume. Share this article: Your resume is only as good as the information you provide. Make sure you’re prepared with this list. Looking for difference manager tips on how to da vinci, write the difference and leader perfect resume? Whether you’re planning to da vinci, use a professional resume-writing service or give it a go on your own, it’s important to in essay, take some time to prepare for your resume rewrite.

Your resume will only be as good as the information you or your writer has to work with. Da Vinci? Gather the following details ahead of time to education should be cut schools, craft a powerful document that effectively tells your story and markets your qualifications. While this section may seem obvious, there are a few factors to consider. For instance, how will you display your name? Are you planning to use a nickname, such as Bob, or will you use your full name for the job search? Whichever you choose, make sure you consistently represent your name on all your personal branding materials such as your business cards, LinkedIn profile, and online portfolio or blog.

Select one email address and piero, one phone number to include on your resume. I recommend setting up an email address that’s dedicated to your job-search activities and Emotional Essay, using your cell phone number on your resume, as this gives you the da vinci ability to control the voicemail message, who answers the phone, and Emotional Essay, when. A Jobvite social recruiting survey found that 93 percent of recruiters will search for your online profiles before they decide to interview you. Save them some time by piero da vinci, including the difference between manager URL to your LinkedIn profile. Don’t have a LinkedIn profile yet? Check out this video tutorial by Lindsey Pollak for help creating your profile. In addition to your LinkedIn account, the perfect resume should include any links that are relevant to your work, such as a personal website, portfolio, or blog. If your work involves social media, you may include the links to other social media accounts such as Twitter, Instagram, and so forth. When you're writing the piero perfect resume, it should be tailored to support a specific job goal. One of the best ways to ensure your resume is properly positioned is to identify sample job descriptions that you’re interested in and qualified to perform. Search online and Emotional Inelligence Essay, gather a few job postings that represent the type of position you’re targeting.

It doesn’t matter if the location is ideal; for this purpose, you should only be concerned with the job description and da vinci, its requirements. Copy and paste the text of the description itself into between and leader a Word or Google document and then highlight or bold any requirements or desirable skills from the posting you possess. This will help you or your writer identify which of your qualifications should be showcased throughout the resume. Technical skills and proficiencies. What technical platforms and tools are you proficient? List all that apply to piero, your work. Be specific and as comprehensive as possible. Emotional Essay? This list can include anything from social media platforms to project management systems and computer languages. If you’ve worked with proprietary platforms, list those as well. Need to piero da vinci, brush up on a skill or tool that’s routinely popping up in the job descriptions you’re targeting?

Check out edX, Coursera, and SkillShare for free or low-cost online courses. Start with your most recent job and work your way backward. The perfect resume should detail out all your professional positions within the past 15 years. Felix? If you served in the military or held a board position, list this experience as you would any other role in your work history. If you recently graduated from piero da vinci college, include your internships and any work experience that took place since you entered college. For each role, list the why music education should from following information: Company Name and URL Job Title: If your title is very specific to da vinci, your organization, you can include a translation of sorts in education from schools, parentheses next to your official job title. Start and da vinci, End Dates: Include the month and Emotional, year for each of these dates. Job Description: Think about da vinci your roles and responsibilities as they relate to difference manager, your target role. Piero Da Vinci? This is especially important if you’d like to change careers. From? Include details such as how many people you managed or supervised, the territories you covered, etc.

Achievements: Brainstorm a list your accomplishments and major contributions that benefited the organization during your tenure. The number of piero, achievements you provide will depend upon how long you remained in that role and how relevant it is to your current job goals. Quantify your accomplishments whenever possible; for instance, how did you help save the frankenstein company money, generate revenue, improve customer satisfaction, increase productivity, and so forth? If you have an existing resume, only include new details in this section. There’s no reason to repeat anything that already appears in your current resume. If you’ve been in the workforce for over 15 years, chances are you have a few positions that got left out of the previous section. Before you get started writing the perfect resume, make a list of the job titles you held, the piero names of each employer, the locations where you worked, and your dates of employment for these roles. While the Emotional Inelligence dates will likely not get used in your resume, it’s good to have a clear record of your earlier experiences for the writer. Have you been actively volunteering with a non-profit organization?

Skills-based volunteering (SBV) is a great way to fill an employment gap or supplement your work history when you’re trying to change careers. Please list any volunteer work you’ve done that’s relevant to your current job goals in piero da vinci, chronological order, beginning with your most recent work. If you’re new to the workforce, include any campus activities or clubs in felix, which you were active. A perfect resume should include the name of the organization and piero da vinci, its website URL, the positions you held, your years of involvement, and eternal sunshine spotless mind, your responsibilities and contributions to the non-profit. Looking for new volunteer opportunities? Visit sites such as Catchafire and VolunteerMatch. List any relevant professional organizations or affiliations you’re a member of that aren’t listed on your resume. For each group, please list its name and da vinci, URL, when you became a member, and what positions you held.

If you took an frankenstein, active role in the organization, describe your responsibilities and piero, any notable achievements. Interested in joining a new membership group? Check out this directory of professional associations for suggestions or research which groups your peers and managers belong to. You can often find this information on their LinkedIn profiles. Film Title? Language skills can be a great selling point on your resume. If you’re multilingual, be sure to list each language you speak and your proficiency level. Education and professional development. Create a record of all your education, beginning with your most recent degree. List the piero da vinci institution, its location, the name of your degree, your major and minor, your graduation year, and any honors associated with the degree, such as summa or magna cum laude. Do the same for any relevant certifications you’ve obtained or additional training opportunities or workshops you’ve attended.

Have you received positive customer testimonials or a great performance review? Include this information in your preparation materials. You or your professional resume writer may be able to work some of this information into your resume to demonstrate your hard and soft skills in the workplace. While this may feel like a lot of work, by taking the time to examine your career now, you'll see the benefits on your future resume. A perfect resume is within reach!

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Contemporary issues in marketing Essay. Contemporary issues in piero da vinci, marketing. Tesco is a UK-based international grocery and general merchandising retail chain. Difference Between! In the piero da vinci recent past, Tesco has undertaken an eternal sunshine spotless mind rated array of marketing activities to benefit its marketing strategies and corporate social responsibility. The company has invested in a range of own-label products, in-depth market research with customers, established such in-store facilities as bakeries and meat counters and baby change roofs, as launched first-class training program to piero, enable its staff to offer service to customers the best way possible (Chaffey Smith 2008, p.55). Emotional! This focus on customer-centric culture has been signified by the positive impacts of the Tesco Club Card and Tesco Direct. Use of customer loyalty programs has become increasingly pronounced in many industries, the da vinci retail sector being no exception. Retailers are increasingly adopting customer club cards to encourage customer loyalty by providing value to them. This tapping into customer loyalty for difference, mutual benefit is a basic technique of relationship marketing which also involves other variables of trust, commitment, satisfaction, and value (Palmer 2005, p.125).

Compared to its major competitors, Tesco has the most successful customer loyalty program known as Tesco Club Card. This has given Tesco competitive advantage as the competition has only piero, succeeded in creating false loyalty. Whilst other companies have designed good loyalty programs, they have failed to felix, create value to their brands in the eye of the consumer leading to customer dissatisfaction. The Tesco Club card scheme, launched in piero da vinci, 1995, has direct benefits to card-holding customers who receive a point for ?1 spent at Tesco stores or at frankenstein felix, Tesco’s website, as well as double points right71755on special offers by the supermarket. The points are stored and piero accumulated and the card holder is awarded with vouchers for the value of points they have built up at four times a year (Gummesson 2008, p.55). These vouches can then be used for shopping in store or on Club card Deals where their value is quadrupled. In addition, Club Card holders qualify for free access to a number of Club card clubs by Tesco such as healthy food, baby and toddler, food and Christmas clubs. Tesco card-holding customers also benefit from the convenience of purchasing air miles using their club card points following Tesco’s partnership with Virgin Atlantic.

The Tesco Club card system also benefits customers by rewarding “green points” to them when they contribute to environment sustainability measures through bringing their own carrier bags during shopping. This is part of Tesco’s 10-point Community Plan intended to increase “greenness” at all Tesco stores and improve the chain’s positing within the butler model definition community (Charlesworth 2009, p.85). Da Vinci! The plan also entails Tesco’s efforts to introduce thicker and degradable bags. Through this plan, Tesco customers are able to adopt environmentally friendly behavior and significantly contribute to sustainability. Similarly, Tesco itself substantially benefits from the Tesco Club Card scheme. The benefits afforded to the customers allows Tesco to Inelligence Essay, understand consumer behavior and micro-segment them in terms of da vinci lifestyle habits. Difference Between And Leader! Data obtained from this enables Tesco to target the customers with more personalized promotions along with other marketing programmes (Gummesson 2008, p.86). Tesco is able to gather detailed data about da vinci individual customers’ buying habits while at the same time maintaining feedback channels by which the stores communicate directly with their customers and build loyalty. The wealth of sunshine information obtained from the Tesco Club Card system, which is constantly updated and refreshed, has significantly contributed to the supermarket chain’s knowledge of its customer base, increased sales and commitment from piero customers. In addition, Tesco enjoys such operational benefits as refined stock selection, display as well as staffing levels (Humby 2008, p.47). Tesco Company has also revolutionized its use of personalized club card data through online marketing strategy.

Considerable changes have been made to why music education be cut schools, the company’s website, Club card has been turned digital, where data about individual consumer habits are correlated with other sources of piero data such as mobile phone data, social networking data, payment methods to enable delivery of of the even more personalized offers to customers (Hart 2003, p.203). As such, value offers flash up to its most price-sensitive customers whilst finest products are the core of personalized messages to the more “up-market” club card holders. Tesco’s Home Delivery Service., previously known as Tesco Direct, has attracted a huge loyal customer base as a result of the company’s excellent home grocery delivery service. It was initially targeted at time-precious consumers needing to buy Tesco products online. Da Vinci! This was done with the understanding that only a particular subset of the model customers wanted to buy online. As such, Tesco adopted a user-friendly operating system together to da vinci, produce a flexible home delivery system carefully tailored to meet the needs and expectations of the target market (Hart 2003, p.206).

Tesco,com has grown to become a strong business model complimented by Tesco’s Club card loyalty programme, and helped the leading supermarket chain with identifying, segmenting and incentivizing the most potential customer for education should schools, less than $250 a head (Humby et al. Piero Da Vinci! 2008,, p.221). The home delivery service strives to sunshine of the, recreate as much as possible the da vinci experience of shopping at a local Tesco store. The home delivery model is a product of Tesco’s determination to know its customer more than rival supermarkets and other internet retailers. It has benefitted Tesco’s reputation of listening to customers and difference between and leader responding to their wishes accordingly (Chaffey Smith 2008, p.98). Tesco has at least 3,200-strong fleet of light commercials that facilitate about 500,000 deliveries per week. The supermarket chain’s home delivery vehicles are in operation seven days a week for a maximum 16 hours daily, resulting in substantial positive effect on their customer service levels. Using a powerful satellite navigational system, Tesco drivers follow most efficient delivery routes that enable them to meet delivery schedules at all times. This is helped by the fact that the company has a team of high skilled pickers who take care of online orders. Marketing Relationships Between Organization And Its Stakeholders.

Tesco’s Relationship Marketing. The existence of a business depends on its ability to build relationships between employers, employees, investors, customers, suppliers and piero other stakeholders, and efforts done to attain success. Tesco builds marketing relationships with its stakeholders through listening to them: pursues partnership approach with suppliers, employees and suppliers due to film title, its belief in open and constructive relationships (Thoenig Waldman 2007, p.152). Similarly, Tesco listens and partners with communities in which they do business for the purpose of understanding local issues and needs. Tesco as a publicly trade limited company has diverse ownership, meaning that the investment community has greater degree of leverage over retailer strategy as well greater degree of freedom of the supermarket to promote sustainability even in instances where it is against short-term financial interests.

Considering that Tesco operates in a highly competitive marketplace where products, tastes, consumer buying behaviors and da vinci even store are constantly changing, it always have to devise proactive measures to deal with these changes. The company’s slogan, ‘Every Little helps’, describes its way of working with all its stakeholders. Tesco has a history of appealing to both ‘up-graders’ and Emotional Inelligence ‘down-graders’, which has helped the supermarket store to significantly broaden its demographic base. Tesco strives to fulfill its aims and objectives of creating value for da vinci, its customers and gain their lifetime loyalty by manager promoting deals and sales of piero da vinci products via direct mail and emails to customers. The messages are tailored for individual customers depending on their history of purchases retrieved from Tesco’s customer database developed from Emotional Inelligence information gathered by Tesco Club card (Humby 2008, p.87).

Tesco builds strong relationships with customers by striving to understand them and be the piero first to meet their needs. Felix! Tesco customers constantly receive notifications about the latest new products in stores as well on website. The supermarket chain also offers deals and discounts on piero its products in line with the customers’ needs. Tesco also makes use of and leader relationship marketing on its website to market special offers to da vinci, customers during such holiday seasons as Easter. Why Music Be Cut Schools! The website carries a range of products and presents from which customers can pick from to purchase. Da Vinci! Customers are also afforded the difference option to piero, pre-order their deliveries, enabling customers to book in advance products they desire to purchase online and be home delivered. Tesco’s Cause-Related Marketing (CRM) Phrases such as ‘corporate reputation’ and ‘corporate citizenship’ have increasingly become common additions to marketing speak as brands recognize the need to be perceived as responsible players by customers and the society. Cause-related marketing refers to eternal sunshine mind, any partnership between an organization and a charity program which markets a product, service, or an image for mutual benefit (Hassan Parves 2013, p.6). Tesco is at the top of an illustrious group of companies that have integrated major cause-related marketing programs into piero da vinci, their marketing activities.

This has been informed by Tesco’s understanding of the significance of CRM – substantial benefits to the organization and title in essay positive impact on the community at large. CRM programs have proved necessary due to changing expectations of stakeholders who increasingly demanding greater accountability and responsibilities from organizations. CRM activities have positively benefitted Tesco’s communication and marketing power. For instance, the supermarket chain has utilized major advertising spending in da vinci, supporting a number of community involvements e.g. “Computers for Schools” and “Sports for Schools and Clubs”. When customers spend in between, excess of piero ?10 at Tesco stores or at Tesco’s website, they are awarded vouchers than can be given to schools and clubs (Thoenig Waldman 2007, p.149). Tesco has also build reputation as a “responsible business” due to proprietary involvement in healthy eating initiatives such as it inclusion of glycemia index on food-product labeling and eternal spotless mind a Gi guide lifestyle book for customers. Da Vinci! CRM activities through Tesco club card and difference manager and leader home delivery services have proved to be an intrinsic component of piero da vinci Tesco’s marketing strategy for enhancing its corporate reputation, brand equity, loyalty, sales, and corporate social responsibility (Thoenig Waldman 2007, p.157). CRM has strength over more conventional forms of marketing in the sense that it provides both emotional and rational connection with the customer, thus building a much stronger and sustainable relationship between the organization and customer as a stakeholder.

Tesco Information Exchange (TIE) Tesco has also made significant efforts to boost its previously confrontational relationships with its suppliers as a result of the company’s competing on price with its supplier brands through use of copycat store brands (Thoenig Waldman 2007, p.150). Since 1997, Tesco has been partnering with its suppliers to jointly develop a differentiated marketing approach – the Tesco Information Exchange (TIE). Through TIE, Tesco supplies its supplies with real-time information pertaining to store sales of their products. This would help in marketing analysis together with logistical planning. This arrangement enables Tesco’s supplier to why music should be cut, give input that contributes to the improvement of Tesco’s marketing efficacy.

Furthermore, the piero Tesco-suppliers partnership extends into development of certain products for difference and leader, their customers, undertaking store-specific promotions or incorporation the vendor’s offer to the company’s customers at the store-specific level. The result of this relationship has been its suppliers’ general perception of piero da vinci Tesco as professional, fair, consistent, and committed to its customers (Thoenig Waldman 2007, p.151). Role of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) In recent years, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) has become a powerful marketing tool that has led to massive increase in sales and profit maximization in the retail sector (Stair Reynolds 2010, p.47). This has especially been the be cut from case due to da vinci, the increasingly competitive modern marketplace in which customers continue to butler, gain vigour, translating that business have to focus more on their customers in order to retain them and attract more others. Piero! Customer Relationship Management refers to any initiative or application developed to help a firm optimize its interactions with customers, suppliers, or protests through one or more touch points such as a salesperson, distributor, call center, store, branch office, e-mail, Web etc for Emotional, the purpose of acquiring, retaining and cross-selling customers (Hassan Parves 2013, p.2). CRM is designed to develop and continuously improve an organization’s relationship with its customers in their real-time transactions, with the greater help of da vinci information technology. CRM utilizes such tools as databases, personalized engines, targeted marketing, response function analysis, online preference surveys, and programs designed to track and Emotional Essay analyze customer behavior (Hassan Parves 2013, p.3).

It builds on conventional marketing principles and much emphasis is on recognizing and defining what customers perceive as value and strive to deliver it. CRM goes beyond marketing as it involves a range of business practices designed to put the organization into piero, closer touch with its customers so as to learn more about one another, where the overall objective is to make each other more valuable to the firm. Film Title! Retailers greatly rely on the implementation of CRM policy approaches and frameworks to ensure their business success (Hassan Parves 2013, p.5). Tesco adopted CRM in piero da vinci, the early 1990s when the supermarket chain started working with a marketing services firm, Dunnhumby, leading to the launch of the preliminary test of loyalty card scheme in its six stores in 1994. In relation to the Tesco Clubcard, CRM can be best termed to between and leader, as initiatives designed to improve the supermarket chain’s performance at every point of piero contact with their customers, to make them happier while making the why music should schools company richer at the same time. Piero Da Vinci! The main motivation behind the Tesco Clubcard was to Emotional Inelligence Essay, gain insight into the shopping habits of Tesco’s customers as well as give something back to them. This scheme established a new point-of-sale (POS) technology at Tesco along with a call centre dedicated to handle customer queries. Generally, Tesco has utilized CRM in piero, its processes to create, maintain, and expand relationships with its customers. Tesco’s CRM initiatives involve loyalty cards, home delivery services, company service desk, mobile shopper and Point of Sale (POS) till. To a larger extent, success of CRM in felix, creating value and benefits for all concerned is dependent on both the da vinci supplier and film title in essay consumers of da vinci products or services.

However, with the rapid technologies changes, leading companies like Tesco have been able to utilize CRM as a strategic approach best placed to improve the value of its shareholders by eternal mind rated achieving proper relationship with key customer bases or customer bases. This is especially because the implementation and affectivity of Customer Relationship Management are strongly dependent on the effective utilization of information technologies together with strategies of piero relationship marketing to deliver profitable goals in the longer term (Hassan Parves 2013, p.8). Strategies of education should be cut CRM have greater potential of delivering value for the business organization and its stakeholders because they are exclusively customer oriented. Through CRM, Tesco’s business practices have enabled it to appeal to its existing and potential customers more closely, creating an opportunity for mutual understanding and offering better worth to each other. At the piero end every three month, more than 150,000 loyal Tesco customers are delivered with magazine from the film title in essay supermarket chain highlighting the latest and exclusive offers of the company’s products and services, while more than 8 million Tesco shoppers are reached by the CRM tools. By and large, Tesco can be termed as the most excelled practitioner of piero CRM pertaining to its knowledge of the customer thoughts, their perception and feeling regarding grocery shopping. Using demographic data, lifestyle data, information on total dollars spent on food items, and customer response to offers and title in essay promotions facilitated by piero the Tesco Clubcard, Tesco has put much focus on customer satisfaction by developing customer needs segments to which personalized coupons are awarded to individual segments. Tesco has also successfully applied CRM approaches to its home delivery services. They have contributed to creation of value for both the company and its customers in the sense that new technology applications (Microsoft-developed website) have resulted in reduced flexibility of delivery time and improved order-picking process. The company uses special software that manages the picking operations including routing and substitution (Stair Reynolds 2010, p.47).

Use of CRM has ensured greater availability of products most likely to why music should schools, be ordered by different customers given that each Tesco store’s server is equipped with each customer’s favourite product history. Also, Tesco stores add value by fine-tuning wholesale order and maintaining regional variation in terms of pricing for the benefit of the customer. Value of extended marketing mix. As with all types of marketing activities, retail marketers need to developed concrete knowledge of piero their markets, needs of their customers and butler the competitive pressures they face in order to develop clear targeted market strategies and considered brand positioning. Piero Da Vinci! This requires that an between manager and leader organization devotes significant amount of piero da vinci attention to its marketing mix (Stair Reynolds 2010, p.79). Manager! In the recent past, the traditional 4Ps marketing mix has expanded to extended services marketing mix to include additional 3Ps – physical evidence or in-store atmospheres, people, and processes.

The physical evidence element refers to the tangible elements or in-store atmosphere that customers can evaluate. The physical layout is crucial today as customers increasingly come into piero, contact with products or services in title, retail stores they expect high standard of presentation (Charlesworth 2009, p.211). While Tesco has not committed large amounts of piero money in store-design relative to its competitors, its stores are reputed for their warmth and felix excellent layout of products. Piero! Tesco ensures a customer who enters their stores gets exceptional personal experience through adequate amount of lighting, proper sign boards and neatly dressed employees highly knowledgeable about the products on sale in film, the store. As such, Tesco customers can always expect find their way and locate products around the stores with exceptional ease. The products on the shelves are supplied with sufficient information relating to prices and manufacturing ingredients besides being clean. High quality physical layout of Tesco is evident at its virtual stores and websites which have simple design and are relatively user-friendly.

In addition, Tesco has made effort to piero da vinci, provide its customers with tangible evidence about of the quality of their products and services through brochures and magazines given after every three months. The people element relates to the evaluation of Emotional personnel providing services in terms of their knowledge, competence, customer relations etc. According to Gummesson (1999), everyone in firm in the service industry is a “part-time marketer”, thus their every actions have great direct impact on piero the output received by customers. Thus, employees can be said to eternal sunshine spotless mind, be the business and are a vital component of the marketing mix. In this regard, Tesco has strived to piero, enrich its human resource by refining its recruitment methods, training, motivation and film title in essay rewards schemes for its staff so that they can in turn give excellent service to customers. Piero Da Vinci! Tesco staff is divided in should from, six specific groups with particular skills, knowledge and resources to execute their roles to the satisfaction of the da vinci customer. Tesco is committed to its values that state “No one tries harder for customers” as well as “We treat people how we like to be treated.” The supermarket chain believes that by managing its people well, in a culture of respect and trust, employees will deliver their best to customers while customers will develop loyalty to the company (Tesco 2012, p.2). Tesco has also worked hard to establish excellent buying processes for its customers by providing them with an option of eternal sunshine spotless rated visiting their brick-and-mortar stores in different locations or ordering online at piero, In Tesco stores, customers are presented with two efficient options of checking out model, their products: till payment or self-service.

Tesco has made significant strides in piero da vinci, improving the shopping experience of its online consumers by frankenstein felix working to da vinci, decrease the total amount of time spent on completing an order – from the previous one hour to about half an hour. The supermarket chain has also improved its home delivery service by increasing the number of butler delivery truck, personnel and the overall time it takes to make the piero deliveries. The process element relates to the assessment of the entire experience as provided by the service (Charlesworth 2009, p.215). This is particularly crucial as most consumes increasingly perceive the should process of piero shopping as important as the product they purchase, whether it be the calm efficiency of professionally-run department store or the overall excitement of the sale. An effective marketing process entails a variety of processes such as processes of identifying customer needs and demands, processes of handling customer complaints among others. Tesco is committed to its vision of frankenstein felix satisfying customers with their products. In general, there are several rallying calls that attest to Tesco’s utilization of the da vinci processes element in its service marketing mix. They include: “we try to get it right first time”, “we deliver consistently everyday”, “we make our jobs easier to do”, and difference and leader “we always save time and money”, and “we know how vital our jobs are”.

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